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Overcoming the recalcitrance (resistance of plant cell walls to deconstruction) of lignocellulosic biomass is a key step in the production of fuels and chemicals. The recalcitrance is due to the highly crystalline structure of cellulose which is embedded in a matrix of polymers-lignin and hemicellulose. The main goal of pretreatment is to overcome this recalcitrance, to separate the cellulose from the matrix polymers, and to make it more accessible for enzymatic hydrolysis. Thus, advances in research have enabled the development and integration of chemical-based pretreatment into proprietary ethanol production technologies in several pilot and demonstration plants globally, with potential to scale-up to commercial levels. In this present studies report on emerging chemical pretreatment methods, highlighting recent findings and process innovations developed to offset inherent challenges via a range of interventions, notably, the combination of chemical and biological pretreatment to achieve high sugar yields at mild reaction conditions, reduce solvent loads and enzyme dose, reduce waste generation, and improve recovery of biomass components in pure forms. Various pretreatment processes for lignocellulosic biomass (Rice straw and Wheat straw) were evaluated including different concentrations (1% - 5%) of sodium hydroxide, sodium chlorite and Hydrogen peroxide. Pretreated biomass was enzymatically saccharified with fungi (Trichoderma reesei) and fermented using fungi (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and bacteria (Zymomonas mobilis) respectively . The results revealed that all pretreatment processes that were subjected to enzymatic saccharification and fermentation produced ethanol. However, the maximum ethanol obtained from rice straw with Zymomonas mobilis (10.02 ± 1.18 g/l).
[Ajeet Kumar Srivastava, Pushpa Agrawal, Abdul Rahiman (2014); Pretreatment and production of bioethanol from different Lignocellulosic biomass Int. J. of Adv. Res. 2 (4). 0] (ISSN 2320-5407). www.journalijar.com
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