17Sep 2018

COMPOSITE CULTURE OF MEDIEVAL BENGAL

  • Associate Professor of History, Cooch Behar Panchanan Barma University
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The conquest of Bengal by Ikhtiyaruddin Muhammad Baktiyar Khalji in 1200 AD was a significant event in the history of Medieval India. The Ulemas, Pir-fakir, Gazi-shahid, and Murshid have come to Bengal immediately after the domination of Islam in Bengal. Being coming West and North India, Sufi and Shia community of Iran also came to Bengal for their security and safety of culture in Bengal. Thus, Bengal became the centre of Indo- Islamic culture. In course of time, both the Hindu and the Muslim Community came to contact with each other. In spite of two different cultures in Bengal both they could work secularly to give a beautiful creations of the Bengali society, a good harmony of the two different religious believes - the Hindus and the Muslims which may be called as an inter communal literature as inter communal culture integration of the Muslims and the Hindus in Medieval Bengal. It is known as composite form of culture.


  1. Sarkar, J.N,(ed) History of Bengal, Vol-II Dacca, 1948, rept. R.B.Publishing Corporation, Delhi,2003.
  2. Bandopadhyaya, Asit Kumar, Bangla Sahityer Sampurna Itibritta, 1965, p. 19 ,rept., Ananda Publishers, Kolkata, 1978.
  3. From Nayanchand Fakir?s Balakanama,
Dilse baithe Ram-Rahim dilse malik Sai Dilse brindavana mokam manjil sthan vesta Pai Ghare biathe choudda bhuban mujia alam tare Chadyukta meghjati Indre baichhe dhare Karim, Abdul, Prachin Puthir Bibaran, Vol. I & II, p. 138, University of Dacca, 1920-21.
  1. Majumder, R.C. (ed) The Mughal Empire, Vol. VII, Bombay,1974,p.555 ,third edition, 1994.
  2. Sen, Sukumar, History of Bengali Literature, p. 96, Calcutta, 1940, Sixth edition, Ananda Publication, Kolkata,1978.
  3. From Chaitanya Charitamrita,
  4. Gram-Samandha Chakrobarty hayamore chacha
??????? Deno-samandhe haite haya gram-samandhi Sacha ??????? Nilambar Chakraborty? haya tomar nana ??????? Se Samndhe hayo tume amar bhagina
  1. Shribaser bastra siys daraji yavana
????? ?Robhu tare nija rupa karailo darshan
  1. From Chaitanya Bhagabata
???? Ai kripa kara ya tomate rahe bhakati ???? Anyer ki daya bhisnudrahi ya yavana ???? Taharo pada padme lailo sharana ? Brindavandas, (ed) Sukumar Sen, Sahitya Academy, New Delhi, 1982, 5th edition, 2015.Cited in? Shrif, Ahmad, Madhyayuger Sahitya Samaj o Sanskritir Rupa, c1977, p. 103
  1. Cited in Sukumar Sen, History of Bengali Literature, cit., p. 98.
  2. Bijay Gupta, Manasamangal (ed) Jayanta Das Gupta and Surendra Mohan Ghose, Culcutta, 1931, p. 19.
Bijay Gupta ,Manasamangal, (1481-85) : Tar bhaye bindusakal Palay Tarase jahar mathasi dekhe tulair pat Hate gale bandhi neya Kajir sakkhat [Free translation: On account of his (Kaji?s) fear the Hindus too to flight. Whoever is found to have had a tulsi leaf on his head in tued hand and throat and is dragged before the Kaji.]
  1. Kabi Kankan, Chandimangal, Basumati edition, Calcutta, 1963, p.68.
  2. Krishnaram, Raimangal (ed) Satyanarayan Bhattacharjee, Calcutta, 1958, p.68.
  3. Majumder, R.C. cit, p.560
  4. Sen, Sukumar, Bangla Sahityer Itihas, Calcutta, 1926, Bandopadhyaya, Asit, Bangla Sahityer Itibritta, Calcutta, 1980, pp. 683-803.
  5. Sharif, Ahmad, cit, p.228.
  6. Bandopadhyaya ,Asit Kumar, Bangla Sahityer Itihas, Vol. II (Chaityanay Yuga), 1962, rept. 2012-13,
Modern Book Private Ltd. Kolkata, p. 338.
  1. Ibid, p.339
  2. Sharif, Ahmad, cit, p.229
Chhari majahan sthane paila chadiveda| Samveda bramhata pathailo nairakar Tabe jadi vishnur hailo utpan Zazu veda tahare pathailo nirnjan | Tritiya Mahesh jadi Srijan hailo Rikveda tan? sthane pathaiya dilo Chaturtha jadi se hari hailo srijan Atharva veda tehane pathaila niranjan Ai chadi vedat sakahya dichhe kartar Abashya abashya Muhammad vyakta haibar| [Poet accepted Brahma, Vishnu and Maheshwara and Vishnu and Hari to be admitted separate personalities.]
  1. Bandopadhyaya, Asit Kumar, Bangla Sahityer Sampurna Itibritta, Calcutta, 1966, p. 201.
  2. Ibid, p.201
  3. Extract from some Vaishnava padas-
  4. Lal Muhamud:
??????? Jamma niye musalmane bancchita haba? sricharana ?? ????Ami mane bhabina ekbar ?????? Abar lal Mahamude hare Krishna karichhe sar|| [Not even one did I ever consider that being born as a Muslim I am deprived of the blessings of his sacred feet. Now Lal Muhamud has decided and for all to accept Hare- Krishna as his sole religious pre- occupation]
  1. Sayad Murtuja:
?????? Sayad Murtuja bhane Kanur Charane ?????? Nibedan shuna Hari ?????? Sakali chariya rahila tua paye ?????? Jiban maran bhari [Free Translation: Sayad Murtuja prays before kanu?s sacred feet; please listen to his prayers. Having renounced everything he remained devoted to you in his life and death].
  1. Akbar:-
Jiu Jiu mera manchora gora Apahi nache apan rase bhora Oichhana Pahuke yahu balihari Saha Akbar tare prem- bhikari [Free Translation:? Gora (Krishna) ,you steal my love for centuries and keep on dancing in your own pleasure. If I can reach there I would be blessed. So, Shah Akbar is begging you of your love.]
  1. Ratri pohaiya jaya kokil panchame gaya
?????? Nidrate paiyachhe bara sukha| ?????? Abhagini baliyare nishi gongailam ?????? Otha ebe dekhi chanda mukha||?????? ?????? Amar mathati khao otha ebe ghare jao ?????? Kakati kariya bali tore| ?????? Ratri protsa haile loke dekhibe tore ?????? Kalakini karibe amare|| [Here poet expresses polite prayer of Radha to Krishna to go home to avoid her naughty/ confession]
  1. Majumder, R.C. cit., P.562.
  2. Ibid, p.562.
  3. Ibid ,p. 563.
  4. Badopadhyaya, Asit Kumar, cit. p.209.
  5. Ray Chaoudhury, Tapas Kumar, Inter Communal Culture- Integration in Medieval Bengal: A Study of Congruence between the System of Vocabulary and the System of Attitude,1995.

[Madhab Chandra adhikary (2018); COMPOSITE CULTURE OF MEDIEVAL BENGAL Int. J. of Adv. Res. 6 (9). 510-515] (ISSN 2320-5407). www.journalijar.com


Dr. Madhab Chandra Adhikary
Cooch Behar Panchanan Barma University, Cooch Behar ,West Bengal

DOI:


Article DOI: 10.21474/IJAR01/7704       DOI URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.21474/IJAR01/7704


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