ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER IN PAKISTAN AND ASSOCIATED HEALTH RISKS
- MSc (Zoology) University of Sargodha Sub-Campus Mianwali, Pakistan.
- Cite This Article as
- Corresponding Author
This paper first reviews the arsenic nature, and its mobilization in environment. Arsenic is a significant element of earth crust and also in a human body. General sources of arsenic are air, food, cigarette smoke and beverages. Being soluble in water it exists in ionic forms and affects the humans who consume arsenic contaminated water. Its effects are severe and long lasting. Pakistan is one of those countries where most of the ground water is contaminated with arsenic. Different organizations such as World Health Organization, International Agency for Research in Oncology & International Agency for Research in Cancer and the United States Environmental Protection Agency has set up the maximum permissible value of arsenic in drinking water for various countries. IARC has ranked arsenic a group 1 human carcinogen which causes lung, bladder and urinary cancers. In Punjab (Pakistan) 20% of population is exposed to over 10 g/L in drinking water and 3% of population is exposed to over 50 g/L and in Sindh 36% of population is exposed to arsenic via drinking water. In Punjab and Sindh drinking water is contaminated with arsenic above the permissible value defined by World Health Organization (WHO), while KPK is less affected. Baluchistan is almost safe from arsenicism.
- Arain, M.B, Kazi, T.G, Baig, J.A., Jamali,M.K., Afridi, H.I., Jalbani. N., Sarfraz, R.A., Shah, A.Q., & Kandhro, G.A. (2009). Respiratory effects in people exposed to arsenic via the drinking water and tobacco smoking in southern part of Pakistan. Journal of Sci Environment, 407,524-5530.
- Arain, G. M., Aslam, M., Limajidano, S., & Khuhawar, M. Y. (2007). A preliminary study on the Arsenic contamination of underground water of Matiari and Khairpur Districts, Sindh, Pakistan. Chem. Soc. Pak. 29(5).
- Akhtar, M. M.., Zhonghua, T., Sissou, Z., & Mohamadi, B. (2015). Assess arsenic distribution in groundwater applying GIS in capital of Punjab, Pakistan. Journal of Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci, 3, 2119?2147.
- Abbas, M., & Cheema, K.J. (2015). Arsenic levels in drinking water and associated health risk in district Shiekhupura .Pakistan. Journal of Anim. Plant Sci, 25 (3 supp 2), 719- 724.
- Abbas, M., & Cheema, K.J. (2014). Correlation Studies of Arsenic Level in Drinking Water and hair Samples of Females in District Sheikhupura. Pakistan International journal of current microbiology and applied sciences, 3 (8), 1077-1085.
- Aslam, S., Ahmed, S., & Bangash, F.K. (2008). Drinking water quality of Sawat District, Journal of Chem. Soc. Pak, 30 (1).
- Ahmad, T., Kahlown, M.A., Tahir, A., & Rashid, H. (2004). Arsenic Emerging Issue: Experiences from Pakistan, 30th WEDC International Conference, Vientiane, Lao PDR.
- Bahadar, H., Mostafalou, S., & Abdollahi, M. (2014). Growing burden of diabetes in Pakistan and the possible role of arsenic and pesticides. Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders, 13 (1), 117.
- Bhatia,S., Balamurugan, G., & Baranwal, A. (2014) High arsenic contamination in drinking water hand-pumps in Khap Tola, West Champaran, Bihar, India. 2 (49).
- Chabowska, A.S., Juchiewicz, J. A., & Ryszard.(2002). Some aspects of Arsenic toxicity and carcinogenicity in living organisms with special regards to its influence on cardiovascular system, blood and bone marrow. International Journal of occupational Medicine and environmental health, 15(2), 101-116.
- Chen, C.-J., Chen, C.W., Wu, M.-M., & Kuo, T.-L. (1992). Cancer potential in liver, lung, bladder and kidney due to ingested inorganic arsenic in drinking water. J. Cancer, 66, 888-892.
- Lee, ????????????? H., Liao, W. T., & Yu, H. S. (2010). Mechanisms and Immune Dysregulation in Arsenic Skin Carcinogenesis. Journal of Cancer Therapy, 1, 76-86.
- Clarkon, T. W. (1991). Inorganic and organometallic pesticides. Handbook of pesticide Toxicology. Academic press, San Diego, 545-552.
- Ebele,O. S. Mechanisms of arsenic toxicity and carcinogenesis. (2009). African Journal of Biochemistry Research, 3 (5), 232-237.
- Gilani, S. R., Mahmood, Z., Hussain, M., Baig, Y., Abbas, Z., & Batool, S. (2013). A Study of Drinking Water of Industrial Area of Sheikhupura with Special Concern to Arsenic, Manganese and Chromium. J. Engg. & Appl. Sci, v 13, p 118-126.
- GuhaMazumder, D. N. (2008). Chronic arsenic toxicity & human health. Indian Journal of Med Res, 128, 436-447.
- Halem, D.van. Bakker, S. A. ., Amy, G. L., & Dijk, J. C. van (2009). Arsenic in drinking water: a worldwide water quality concern for water supply companies. Journal of Drinking Water Eng. Sci, 2, 29-34.
- Hubaux, R., Daiana D Becker-Santos., Katey SS Enfield., Rowbotham, D., Lam, S., Wan L Lam., & Victor D Martinez. (2013). Molecular features in arsenic-induced lung tumors.
- Hagras, M.A. (2013). Water quality assessment and hydrochemical characterstics of groundwater in Punjab, Pakistan. IJRRAS, 161 (2).
- Hussain, Y., Dilawar, A., FidaUllah, S., Akhter, G., Martinez-Carvajal, H., Hussain, M.B., &? Aslam, A. Q. (2016). Modelling the spatial distribution of arsenic and its correlation with public health, central Indus basin, Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, 4, 18-25.
- Kazi, T.G., Arain, M.B., Jamali ,M.K., Jalbani, N., Afridi, H.I., Sarfraz ,R.A., Baig, J.A., & Shah ,A.Q. (2009).Ecotox Environ Safety , 72, 301?309.
- Khan, M.M.H., Sakauchi, F., Sonoda, T., Washio,M., & Muri, M. (2003). Magnitude of Arsenic Toxicity in Tube-well Drinking water in Bangladesh and its adverse effects on human health including cancer, Evidence from the view of literature. Jour Asian Pacific cancer, 4, 7-14.
- Khan, M. A., & Yuh- Shan Ho. (2011). Arsenic in Drinking Water: A Review on Toxicological Effects, Mechanism of Accumulation and Remediation. Asian journal of Chem, 23 (5), 1889-1901.
- Kaltreider, R.C., Davis, M.A., Lariviere, P. J., & Hamilton, W. J. (2001). Arsenic Alters the Function of the Glucocorticoid Receptor as a Transcription factor. Journal of Environ Health Perspect, 109, 245?25.
- Khattak, S. A., Polya, A., Ali, L., & Shah, M. T. (2016). Arsenic exposure assessment from ground water sources in Peshawar Basin of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, Journal of Himalayan Earth Sciences, 49 (1), 68-76.
- Kapaj, S., Peterson, H., Liber, K., & Bhattacharya, P. (2006). Human health effects from chronic arsenic poisoning arsenic poisoning; a review. Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A, 41, 2399?2428.
- Luque?o, F.F., Valdez, F.L., Melo, P.G., Su?rez, S.L., Gonz?lez, E. N. A., Mart?nez, I. A., Guillermo, G. M. S., Mart?nez, H. G., Mendoza, H.R., Garza.A. M. A & Vel?zquez, P. I (2013). Heavy metal pollution in drinking water - a global risk for human health: A review. African journal of environmental science and technology, 7(7), 567-584.
- Lubin, H.J., Beane, L. E., Freeman, Cantor, K.P. (2007). Inorganic Arsenic in Drinking Water: An Evolving Public Health Concern. Oxford Journals, 99 (12).
- Memon, A. R., Jalbani, R.A., Shaikh, T. A. (2014). Arsenicosis is one of the Predisposing Factor of Carcinoma of Lung in Non- Smokers. Rep Opinion, 6(2), 71-74.
- Mukharjee,A., Sengupta, M. K., Hossain, M.A., Ahmed, S., Das, B., Lodh, B. D. N., Rahman, M., & Chakrabort, D. (2006). Arsenic Contamination in Groundwater: A Global Perspective with Emphasis on the Arsenic Asian Scenario. Journal of Health Popul Nutr, 24(2), 142-163. firstname.lastname@example.org.
- McCarty, K.M., ThiHanh, H., & Kim, K.W. (2011). Arsenic geochemistry and human health in South East Asia. Journal of Environ Health Perspect, 26(1), 71?78.
- Mohsin, M., Safdar, S., Asghar, F., & Jamal, F (2013). Assessment of Drinking Water Quality and its Impact on Residents Health in Bahawalpur City. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 3 (15).
- Mahar, M.T., Khuhawar. M.Y., Jahangir, T. M., & Ahmad, M. (2015).Determination of Arsenic contents in ground water of District Rahim Yar Khan Southern Punjab, Pakistan. Arab Journal of Geosci.
- Majidano, S.A., Arain, G.M., & Khuhawar, Y. M. (2010). Arsenic levels in ground water of Sindh Pakistan Arsenic in Geo sphere and Human diseases-Jean-Bundschuh and Bhattacharya (eds).
- Khalequzzamn., Farouqi, F., & Mitra, A. (2005).Asessment of Arsenic contamination in ground water and health problems in Bangladesh. International journal of environmental health and public research, 2 (2), 204- 213.
- Naidu, R.., Smith, E., Owens, G., Bhattacharya, P., & Nadebum, P. (2006). Arsenic around the world?an overview. In Managing Arsenic in the Environment: From Soil to Human Health; CSIRO publishing: Victoria, Australia, 3?31.
- Naqvi, M. S., Taneez, M., & Khan, N. (2013). Physiochemical analysis of drinking water of Dhokedhamial (Mohra Fatima) GujjarKhan. Pakistan International Journal of Advanced Scientific and Technical Research, 6 (3).
- Naujokas, F.M., Anderson, B., Ahsan, H., Aposhian, H.V., Graziano, J.H., Khalequzzaman, Md., Faruque, S.F.M, & Mitra, A.K. (2005). Assessment of Arsenic Contamination of Groundwater and Health Problems in Bangladesh. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 2(2),? 204?213.
- Ehrenstein, O.V., Guha Mazumder, D.N., Yuan, Y., Samanta, S., Balmes, J., Sil,A., Ghosh, N., Smith, M.H., Haque, R., Purushothamam, R., Lahiri, S., Das, S., & Allan H. Smith.(2006). Decrements in Lung Function Related to Arsenic in Drinking Water in West Bengal, India. 162 (6).
- Pakulska, D., & Czerczak, S. (2006). Hazardous Effects of Arsine: A Short review. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental
- Pershagen, G. (1981). The Carcinogenicity of Arsenic. Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, 40, 93-100.
- Pritchard,J D. ( 2007). Inorganic arsenic toxicological overview, Version 2, 1-10.
- Petrusevski, B., Sharma, S., Schippers, J. C., & Shordt, K. (2007). Arsenic in drinking water; thematic overview paper, IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre.
- Rahman, M.M., Naidu, R., Bhattacharya, P. (2009). Arsenic contamination in groundwater in the Southeast Asia region. Environ. Geo chem. Health, 31, 9?21.
- Raschid-Sally, L. (2000). Arsenic contamination of groundwater in Bangladesh. Colombo, Sri Lanka, International Water Management Institute.
- Rossman, T. G. Mechanism of arsenic carcinogenesis: an integrated approach Mutation Research. (2003). 533, 37?65.
- Ramay, M. I., Ahmad, T., Shipin, O. V., Kadushkin, A., & Jazeph, D. (2007). Arsenic contamination of ground water and its mitigation in the province of Punjab (Pakistan) in the light of situation in South East Asia. A survey report.
- Rondri, V.M., Jimenez-Capdeville, M.E., Giordano, M. (2003).The effects of arsenic exposure on the nervous system. 145 (1), 1-18.
- Smith,A. H., Rich, H. C., Bates, M. N., Goeden, H. M., Picciotto, I.H., Duggan, H. M., Wood, R., Kosnett, M. J., & Smith, M. T. (1992). Cancer Risks from Arsenic in Drinking. Journal of Water Environmental Health Perspectives, 97, 259-267.
- Saha, J.C., Dikshit., A. K., Bandyopadhyay, M., & Saha, K.C. A review of Arsenic Poisoning and its effects on human health. Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur-721302, India.
- Shakoor, M. B., Niazi., N.K., Bibi, I., Rahman, M. M., Naidu, R., Dong, Z , Shahid, M., & Arshad, M. (2011). Unraveling Health Risk and Speciation of Arsenic from Groundwater in Rural Areas of Punjab, Pakistan, J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 12, 12371-12390. www.mdpi.com/journal/ijerph.
- Singh, M.K., & Kumar, A. (2012). A global problem of arsenic in drinking water and its mitigation- a review. IJAET, 3 (1), 196-203.
- Shahid, N., Shahid, M., Siddique, H.F., Bakht, G., & Shah, G.M. (2015). Assessing drinking water quality in Punjab, Pakistan. Polish Journal of Environ. Studies, 24 (6).
- Singh N., Kumar, D., & Sahu, A.P. (2007) Arsenic in the environment Effects on human health and possible prevention. Journal of Environmental Biology, 28(2), 359-36.
- Soomro, Z. A., Dr. Khokhar, M. I. A., Hussain, W., and Hussain, M. (2011). Drinking water quality challenges in Pakistan, Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources, Lahore ? Pakistan.
- Tareen, A. K., Sultan, I. A., Khan, M. W., & Dr. Khan, A. (2013). Determination of heavy metals found in different sizes of tube wells of district Pishin Baluchistan, Pakistan. Asian Journal of Science and Technology.
- Talibi, A., Kemper, K., Minatullah, K., Foster, S., & Tinihof, A. An overview of current operational responses to the Arsenic issues in south and East Asia. A Technical report, Version 2.
- Thompson, C., & William A. Suk. (2013).The Broad Scope of Health Effects from Chronic Arsenic Exposure: Update on a Worldwide Public Health Problem. Journal of Health. Perspect, 121(3).
- Tantry, B. A., Shrivastava, D., Taher, I., & Tantry, M. N. (2015). Mechanisms of Action and Related Health Effects Journal of Environmental and analytical toxicology, 5 (6), 2161-0525.
- Toor, I. A., Tahir, S. N. A. (2009). Study of Arsenic Concentration Levels in Pakistani Drinking Water. Journal of Environ. Study, 18 (5), 907-912.
- Thakur, J.K., Thakur, R. K., Ramanathan, A. L., Kumar, M., & Singh, S.K. (2010). Arsenic Contamination of Groundwater in Nepal?an Overview. 3, 1-20.
- Tchounwou, P. B., Patlolla, A., & Jose A. Centeno. (2003). Carcinogenic and Systemic Health Effects Associated with Arsenic Exposure?A Critical Review. By Society of Toxicologic Pathology, 31, 575?588.
- Uqaili, A. A. (2016). Arsenic contamination in groundwater sources of district Matiari. International Journal of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, 3 (4).
- Wang, Z., Zhao, Y., Smith, E., Gregory J. Goodall., Paul A. Drew., Brabletz, T., & Yang,C. (2011). Reversal and prevention of arsenic-induced human bronchial epithelial cell malignant transformation by micro RNA, Jour. Toxi sci Advance Access, 1-41.
[Mehwish Niazi. (2018); ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER IN PAKISTAN AND ASSOCIATED HEALTH RISKS Int. J. of Adv. Res. 6 (11). 52-60] (ISSN 2320-5407). www.journalijar.com
University of Sargodha (sub Campus Mianwali), Punjab
Article DOI: 10.21474/IJAR01/7970 DOI URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.21474/IJAR01/7970
Share this article
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.