Expression of Metallothionein as a Biomarker in Response to Various Stress Factors in Different Organisms

Abstract: The present study was designed to evaluate expression of metallothionein (MTs) at protein level inplant and animal tissues after exposure tobiotic and abiotic factors. Test organisms, within different treatment groups were exposed to different kinds of biotic (Sex, age, hormones, microbial infection) and abiotic factors (e.g., oxidative stress; salt stress; cold conditions) as well as heavy metals stress. The main goal of this study is to investigate and compare the responses of metallothionein biomarker in the selected organisms to assess environmental stress. Two independent types of analyses were conducted utilizing spectrophotometric and SDS-PAGE methodologies.In Brassica MTs were detected in seedling tissues indicating their important roles in development while in mice, a high level of MT content in hepatic tissues was also observed. Spectrophotometric analysis proved the expression of metallothioneins and distinctive MTs concentrations were observed in tested organisms exposed to various stress factors. The analysis of the presence and intensity of bands revealed by SDS–PAGE electropherograms also confirmed the induction of stress proteins by different treatments in both organisms. Results of SDS-PAGE analysis for MTs expression at the protein level in B. napus and hepatic tissue of mice revealed differences in the protein expression pattern among different examined stress factors. Our data showed that metallothionein protein expression has the potential to be sensitive environmental biomarkers. Based on the results, a strong relationship can be inferred among metal exposure, oxidative stress, sex differences and MT protein levels. Therefore, this study represents an important step to understanding MT response processes as a whole. However, these results should be combined with results from genomic, transcriptomic, metabolomic, functional and physiological studies to unravel the complexity of metallothionein responses.

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[Hala M. Abdelmigid, Aziza M. Hassan and Sanaa M.F. Gad El-Rab (2014); Expression of Metallothionein as a Biomarker in Response to Various Stress Factors in Different Organisms Int. J. of Adv. Res. 2 (10). 0] (ISSN 2320-5407).

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