13Apr 2020


  • Medical Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Egypt.
Crossref Cited-by Linking logo
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • References
  • Cite This Article as
  • Corresponding Author

The aim of the work: The aim of this work is to evaluate the role of exercise and / or irisin in cases of hypothyroid male rats Material and Methods: 90 local strain male rats divided into two groups: Group 1-Without exercise which is divided five subgroups 10 rats each, Subgroup Ia Euthyroid Control rats receive 0.5 ml physiological saline daily intraperitoneal (IP) for 3 weeks. Subgroup. IIa Hypothyroid Control rats will be injected by 6-n-propyl-2thiouracil (PTU) with a dose 10 mg/kg/day (IP) for 3 weeks. subgroup IIIa L-Thyroxine Treated Hypothyroid rats: Induction of hypothyroid as in group IIa then will receive L-Thyroxine hormone (IP) with a dose of 1.5mg /kg/day for 10 days. Subgroup VIa Irisin Treated Hypothyroid rats: Induction of hypothyroid as in subgroup IIa then will receive Irisin hormone (IP) with a dose of 10?g/kg/day for 10 days. subgroup Va Irisin & L-Thyroxine treated hypothyroid rats Induction of hypothyroid as in subgroup 2a then will receive Irisin hormone as in subgroup 4a and L-Thyroxine as in subgroup 3a for 10 days. Group 2-With Acute Forced Swimming which is divided into five subgroups 10 rats each Subgroup Ib: Euthyroid Control Acute Forced Swimming subgroup: will be treated as subgroup 1a then will be submitted to acute forced swimming .Subgroup II b: Hypothyroid Acute Forced Swimming treated as in subgroup IIa then will be submitted to acute forced swimming. Subgroup III b: Thyroxine treated hypothyroid acute forced swimming subgroup: treated as in subgroup II a, then will be submitted to acute forced swimming then will receive L-Thyroxine as in subgroup IIIa. Subgroup IV b: Irisin treated hypothyroid acute forced swimming group: treated as subgroup II a, then will be submitted to acute forced swimming then will receive Irisin similar to subgroup IVa. For all these rats, For group 2, the Maximal Swimming Time (MST) were measured then for all animal studied the body weight, body mass index and abdominal circumference were measured one day before and at the end of experimental period. Tri-iodithyronine (T3), Thyroxin (T4), Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH), Irisin and Creatin Kinase (CK) were measured also lipid profile will be measured Triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL, HDL and phospholipids. Results: In hypothyroid rats, irisin injection only caused decrease in body weight, abdominal circumference and body mass index with decrease in lipid profile but no improvement in thyroid function tests. While L-thyroxine injection only caused improvement in thyroid function tests but no significant improvement in anthropometric measurements and lipid profile. On the other hand, injection of both irisin and L-thyroxine gave the best results in all parameters as both improved anthropometric measurements, lipid profile and thyroid function tests. hypothyroid animal had significant increase in serum CK levels as compared to normal euthyroid rats. L-thyroxine when given as treatment to hypothyroid rats caused significant reduction in CK However, when irisin was given as a treatment to hypothyroid animals, it caused more increase in irisin than hypothyroid rats Acute exercise causes significant decrease in MST in hypothyroid animals and those treated with irisin as compared to control and those of hypothyroid treated with thyroxine However Acute exercise caused no significant change in all other parameters studied Conclusion: Irisin has a major role in reducing weight by converting white fat tissue into brown adipose tissue and then to heat. On the other side of the study, irisin has no direct effect on improving the secretion of thyroid hormones in people with thyroid hormone deficiency. Also, the injectable exogenous irisin has a better and more potent effect than the endogenous irisin resulting from acute short-term exercise.

  1. Aktas A., Tuncer , Yildrm A., Nergiz Y. and ?Akkus M. (2011): Protective Effects of Melatonin on Testicular Torsion and Detorsion Damage in Sprague-Dawley Rats. Int. J.? Morphol29(1):7-15.
  2. Archana P., Lal A.K. and Negi K.S. (2007): Serum Creatine Kinase Activity in Thyroid Disorders JK. science9(1):25-6.
  3. Asvold B.O., Vatten L.J., Nilsen T.I.L. and Bjoro T. (2007): The association between TSH within the reference range and serum lipid in a concentrations. population based study. Eur. J. Endocrinol.15(6):181?6.
  4. Ateş İ., Altay M., Top?uoğlu C. and Yılmaz FM., (2016): Circulating levels of irisin is elevated in hypothyroidism, a case-control study. Endocrinol. Metab.60(2):95-100.
  5. Atici E., Menevse E., Baltaci AK. and Mogulkoc R., (2018): Both experimental hypothyroidism and hyperthyrothyroid increase cardiac irisin Bratisl. Med. J.119(1)32?5.
  6. Aydin S., Kuloglu T., Yilmaz M., Kalayci M., Sahin I., et al., (2013): Alterations of irisin concentrations in saliva and serum of obese and normal-weight subjects, before and after 45 min of a Turkish bath or running. Peptides.50:13-8.
  7. Babu, K., Jayaraai, I. A. and Jeganathan, P., (2011): Effect of abnormal thyroid hormone changes in lipid peroxidation and antioxidant imbalance in hypothyroid and hyperthyroid patients. Int. J. Biol. Med. Res.2(4):1122?6.
  8. Bahls M. and Nele F. (2016): Circulating Irisin Concentrations Are Associated with a Favourable Lipid Profile in the General Population PLoS ONE11(4):e0154319.
  9. Bansal A.?and Jayashree R., (2015): A Compendium of Molecular Signatures of Thyroid Cancer and Disorders Journal of Cancer Science & Therapy7(7) 198-201.
  10. Bostr?m. P., Sparks M., LiYe J., HyunChoi.An H., MelinKhandekar K.A., Virtanen P., (2012): Beige Adipocytes Are a Distinct Type of Thermogenic Fat Cell in Mouse and Human Cell50, Issue 2, (20):366-76.
  11. Brent G., (2011) Why can insulin resistance be a natural consequence of thyroid dysfunction? J. Thyroid Res. 152850
  12. Das K., Subudhi U., Paital B., Bhanja S. and Chainy GBN., (2008): Alleviation of enhanced oxidative stress and oxygen consumption of l-thyroxine induced hyperthyroid rat liver mitochondria by vitamin E and curcumin. Chemico- Biological Interactions173(2):105?14. .
  13. Emine A., Rasim M., Abdulkerim KB. and Esma M., (2017): Both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism increase plasma irisin levels in rats Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation32(1):1-7
  14. Eun B.M.,?Namood E.S.,?Moonsup J.,?and?Joo Y.H. (2019): Irisin Exerts Inhibitory Effect on Adipogenesis Through Regulation of Wnt Signaling Front Physiol.10:1085
  15. Fossati P. and Prencipe L., (1982): Triglycerides determination after enzymatic hydrolysis. Clin. Chem.28(10):2077-80.
  16. Fruchart JC., (1982): Separation of low density lipoproteins. Rev. Fr. Des. Laobratories103:7-17.
  17. Fatouros IG. (2018): Is irisin the new player in exercise-induced adaptations or not? A 2017 update Clin Chem Lab Med.2856(4):525-48.
  18. Garduno-Garcia J.J., Alvirde-Garcia U., Lopez-Carrasco G., Padilla Mendoza ME., Mehta R., et al., (2010): TSH and free thyroxine concentrations are associated with differing metabolic markers in euthyroid subjects.?Eur J Endocrinol.163(2):273?8.
  19. Gouni-Berthold I., Berthold HK., Huh JY., Berman R., Spenrath N., et al., (2013): Effects of lipid-lowering drugs on irisin in human subjects in vivo and in human skeletal muscle cells ex vivo. PLoS One.8(9):1?10.
  20. Grove TH., (1979): Effect of reagent pH on determination of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol by precipitation with sodium phosphotungstate-magnesium. Clin. Chem.25(4):560-4.
  21. Grigorios P., Stavroula A.P., Kalliopi P.P. and Despina K., (2016): Changes in Thyroid Hormone Levels Within the Normal and/or Subclinical Hyper- or Hypothyroid Range Do Not Affect Circulating Irisin Levels in Humans Thyroid26(8):1039-45.
  22. Gruzdeva O., Borodkina D., Uchasova E., Dyleva Y., Barbarash O., (2019): (Leptin resistance: underlying mechanisms and diagnosis. Diabetes Metab, Syndr, Obes.2512:191-8.
  23. Halpern B., (2016): Elevated irisin and alanine aminotransferase levels in hypothydoidism: role of oxidative stress, Arch. Endocrinol. Metab.60(2):89-91.
  24. Hekimsoy Z. and Oktem IK., (2005): Serum creatine kinase levels in overt and subclinical hypothyroidism. Endocr Res.31(3):171-5.
  25. Hemavathi and? Hanumanthaiah? A., (2016): Evaluation of serum creatine kinase levels in patients with hypothyroidism. J. Evolution Med. Dent. Sci.5(35):2053-5.
  26. Hern?ndez-Torres R.P.A., Ramos-Jim?nez P.V., Torres-Dur?n J. and Romero-Gonzalez D., (2009): Effects of single sessions of low-intensity continuous and moderate-intensity? intermittent execise on blood lipids in the same endurance exercise. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport12(2):323-31.
  27. Jinjuan Fu., Yu H., Jialiang W., Yukai L., Shuo Z., et al., (2016): Irisin Lowers Blood Pressure by Improvement of Endothelial Dysfunction via AMPK-Akt-eNOS-NO Pathway in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat, J. of Am. Heart Assoc.5:1-12
  28. J?źk?w P.,?Koźlenia D.,?Zawadzka K.,?Konefał M.,?Chmura P.,?et al., (2019): Effects of running a marathon on irisin concentration in men?J Physiol Sci. 2019 Jan69(1):79-84.
  29. Koner S. and Chaudhuri A.C., (2019): Hypothyroidism and serum creatinine phosphokinase International Journal of Research & Review:6 (4):50-7.
  30. Kraemer RR., Shockett P., Webb ND., Shah U. and Castracane VD., (2014): A transient elevated irisin blood concentration in response to prolonged, moderate aerobic exercise in young men and women. Horm Metab Res.46(2):150-4.
  31. Lawson EA., Ackerman KE., Slattery M., et al., (2014): Oxytocin secretion is related to measures of energy homeostasis in young amenorrheic athletes, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.99(5):881-5.
  32. Liamis G.T.D., Filippatos A.L. and Elisaf M.S., (2017): Hypothyroidism-associated hyponatremia: mechanisms, implications and treatment European Journal of Endocrinology176(1):15?20.
  33. Lima JG., N?brega LH., N?brega ML., Santos J?nior AC., FernandesFda , et al., (2012):? Influence? of? thyroid function in? CPK? serum? levels.? Arq. Bras.? Endocrinol. Metabol.56(3):190-4.
  34. Lim D.P., Choi Y., Rhee and Kim H.C., (2015): ?Association between obesity indices and insulin resistance among healthy Korean adolescents: the JS high school study,??PLoS One,10(5),article e0125238.
  35. Madhu SV., Jain R., Kant S., Prakash V. and Kumar V., (2010): Myopathy presenting as a sole manifestation of hypothyroidism. J Assoc Physicians India.58:569-70.
  36. Matsakas A., Bozzo C., Cacciani1 N., Caliaro F., Reggianil C., et al. (2006): Effect of swimming on myostatin expression in white and red gastrocnemius muscle and in cardiac muscle of rats. Exp Physiol91(6):983?94.
  37. Matsuo Y., Gleitsmann K., Mangner N., Werner S., Fischer T., et al., (2015): Fibronectin type III domain containing 5 expression in skeletal muscle in chronic heart failure-relevance of inflammatory cytokines, J. Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle6(1):62-72.
  38. McGrowder DA., Fraser YP., Gordon , Crawford? TV. and Rawlins? JM., (2011):? Serum? creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities in patients? with? thyroid? disorders.? Niger? J. ClinPract.14(4):454-9.
  39. Mogulkoc R., Baltaci AK., Yilmaz B. and Kelestimur H., (1999): Influence of hypovolemic and hypertonic treatments on plasma vasopressin levels and fluid balance in the propylthiouracil-induced hypothyroid rat. Neuro-Endocrinol Lett.21(1):311?4.
  40. Norheim F., Langleite TM., Hjorth M., Holen T., Kielland A., et al., (2014): The effects of acute and chronic exercise on PGC-1alpha, irisin and browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue in humans. FEBS.281(3):739-49.
  41. Oelmann S., Matthias N., Henry V. and Nele F., (2016): Request full-text\Circulating Irisin Concentrations Are Associated with a Favourable Lipid Profile in the General Population? PLoS ONE11(4):e0154319.
  42. Ormazabal V., Soumyalekshmi N., Omar E., Claudio A. and Carlos SalomonA.Z., (2018):? Association between insulin resistance and the development of cardiovascular disease Cardiovascular Diabetology17:122-6.
  43. Pang J.Y., Jiaming R., Haiqing W., Jiayi Z., Shengyong W., et al., (2018): Time-Dependent Changes in Increased Levels of Plasma Irisin and Muscle PGC-1α and FNDC5 after Exercise in Mice Tohoku J. Exp. Med.244:93-103.
  44. Pekkala S., Wiklund PK., Hulmi JJ., Ahtiainen JP., Horttanainen M., et al., (2013): Are skeletal muscle FNDC5 gene expression and irisin release regulated by exercise and related to health? J Physiol.591(Pt 21):5393-400.
  45. Ranka and Mathur? R., (2003):? Serum? creatine phosphokinase? in? thyroid? disorders.? Indian J Clin Biochem.18(1):107.
  46. Razvi S., Jabbar A., Pingitore A., Danzi S., Biondi B., et al., (2018): Thyroid hormones and cardiovascular function and diseases.?Journal of the American College of Cardiology.71:1781?96.
  47. Reza, Chu M.S., Nathiya S.,?Xiaojia G.,?Mridula S., et al., (2017):? Irisin treatment improves healing of dystrophic skeletal muscle Oncotarget,178(58): 53?66.
  48. Ruchala M., Zybek A. and Szczepanek-Parulska E., (2014): Serum irisin levels and thyroid function--newly discovered association. 99(1):28-35.
  49. Sabbaghian R.L. and Gholami M., (2010): Impact of exercise training and/or diet on the lipoprotein?lipid profiles in young overweight women. Br J Sports Med. 44(20).
  50. Samy D.M., Ismail C.A. Nassra RA., (2015): Circulating Irisin Concentrations in Rat Models of Thyroid Dysfunction Effect of Exercise. Metabolism Clinical AND Experimental64(7):804-13.
  51. Sanyal D. and Raychaudhuri M., (2016): Hypothyroidism and obesity: An intriguing link Indian J Endocrinol Metab.20(4):554-7.
  52. Shanshan T., Rong Z., Feng J., Jie W., Miao C., et al., (2015): Circulating irisin levels are associated with lipid and uric acid metabolism in a Chinese population Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology:42:896?901.
  53. Shomon, (2019): Leptin, rT3, and Weight Gain With Hypothyroidism Leptin, rT3, and Weight Gain With Hypothyroidism Very well health12(1):11-2
  54. Tietz, (1999): Textbook of Clinical Chemistry, Edited by CA Burtis, ER Ashwood, WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia , 3rd edition, p.1915.
  55. Tietz NW., (1976): Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, p.322- 60.
  56. Villanueva,? Alva-S?nchez C.,?and?Pacheco-Rosado J., (2013): The Role of Thyroid Hormones as Inductors of Oxidative Stress and Neurodegeneration61(3):?219?27
  57. Yang N., Zhang H., Gao X., Miao L., Yao Z., et al., (2019): Role of irisin in Chinese patients with hypothyroidism: an interventional study. J Int Med Res.47(4):1592-601.
  58. Yukuo Y., Eisuke F. and Kunio T., (1980): A Direct Colorimetric Method for the Determination of Phospholipids with Dithiocyanatoiron Reagent. The Journal of Biochemistry88(2):463?8
  59. Zybek-Kocik A., Sawicka-Gutaj N., Szczepanek-Parulska E., Andrusiewicz M., Walig?rska-Stachura J., et al., (2018): The association between irisin and muscle metabolism in different thyroid disorders Clin. Endocrinol.88(3):460-7.

[Nesma Atia El-Sayed El-Zanaty, Romaysaa Ali El-Sherbieny, Hala Foad El-Baradey and Salma Elwy Nassar (2020); THE ROLE OF EXERCISE AND / OR IRISIN IN CASES OF HYPOTHYROID MALE RATS Int. J. of Adv. Res. 8 (Apr). 80-90] (ISSN 2320-5407). www.journalijar.com

Nesma Atia El-Sayed El-Zanaty
Medical Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Egypt


Article DOI: 10.21474/IJAR01/10748       DOI URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.21474/IJAR01/10748

Share this article