15Apr 2020

A STUDY OF CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR (CAUSALITY & PREVENTION OF CRIME)

  • Penultimate Year Student of Law B.A. L.L.B, National Law University Odisha.
Crossref Cited-by Linking logo
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • References
  • Cite This Article as
  • Corresponding Author

This research is set out to carefully analyze the psyche of the criminals and to identify commonality in their behavior irrespective of the demographic aspect. The research aims at analyzing criminal law theories and their practical usage in modern scenario. Crime is defined as an act of deviance from socially accepted norms translated as criminal code. Countries all around the world have a definite set of criminal code compromising principles of morality and ethics as per their unique culture and society. But in practicality, these principles have failed to culminate the desired result of prevention of crime upon implementation by the traditional methods of enforcement. Deviance relates to the subjectivity of society. Considering morality as a subjective aspect would propagate deviance among individuals formed out of different circumstances than the majority. Hence, crime is often committed by the minority upon the majority in a society. The ultimate aim of the research is to identify the principle of causality in relation to crime and eventually portraying an effective approach for the prevention of crime.


  1. Greenwald, H., & Roche, P. Q. (1959). The Criminal Mind: A Study of Communication Between Criminal Law and Psychiatry.?American Sociological Review,?24(5), 741. doi: 10.2307/2096192
  2. Ellingwood, H., &Wardrop, K. (2013). C. R. Bartol and A. M. Bartol, Current Perspectives in Forensic Psychology and Criminal Behavior, Third Edition California: SAGE Publications Inc., 331 pages, paperback. ISBN 978-1-119-97624-0.?Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology,?29(2), 95?99. doi: 10.1007/s11896-013-9138-6
  3. Ellingwood, H., &Wardrop, K. (2013). C. R. Bartol and A. M. Bartol, Current Perspectives in Forensic Psychology and Criminal Behavior, Third Edition California: SAGE Publications Inc., 331 pages, paperback. ISBN 978-1-119-97624-0.?Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology,?29(2), 95?99. doi: 10.1007/s11896-013-9138-6
  4. (2020, February 18). Poverty in India. Retrieved from https://www.adb.org/countries/india/poverty
  5. India's Poverty Profile. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/infographic/2016/05/27/india-s-poverty-profile
  6. CRIME IS BOTH CAUSE, CONSEQUENCE OF POVERTY, THIRD COMMITTEE TOLD AS IT BEGINS DISCUSSION OF CRIME PREVENTION, INTERNATIONAL DRUG CONTROL | Meetings Coverage and Press Releases. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.un.org/press/en/2005/gashc3817.doc.htm
  7. Blair, C., & Raver, C. C. (2012). Child development in the context of adversity: Experiential canalization of brain and behavior.?American Psychologist,?67(4), 309?318. doi: 10.1037/a0027493
  8. Mounts, N. S. (2002). Parental management of adolescent peer relationships in context: The role of parenting style.?Journal of Family Psychology,?16(1), 58?69. doi: 10.1037/0893-3200.16.1.58
  9. Laird, R. D., Jordan, K. Y., Dodge, K. A., Pettit, G. S., & Bates, J. E. (2001). Peer rejection in childhood, involvement with antisocial peers in early adolescence, and thedevelopment of externalizing behavior problems.?Development and Psychopathology,?13(2), 337?354. doi: 10.1017/s0954579401002085
  10. Cowan, P. A., & Cowan, C. P. (n.d.). From family relationships to peer rejection to antisocial behavior in middle childhood.?Childrens Peer Relations: From Development to Intervention., 159?177. doi: 10.1037/10653-009
  11. Laird, R. D., Pettit, G. S., Dodge, K. A., & Bates, J. E. (2005). Peer relationship antecedents of delinquent behavior in late adolescence: Is there evidence of demographic group differences in developmental processes??Development and Psychopathology,?17(01). doi: 10.1017/s0954579405050078
  12. Biglan, A., Flay, B. R., Embry, D. D., & Sandler, I. N. (2012). The critical role of nurturing environments for promoting human well-being.?American Psychologist,?67(4), 257?271. doi: 10.1037/a0026796
  13. Hart, C. H., Nelson, D. A., Robinson, C. C., Olsen, S. F., &Mcneilly-Choque, M. K. (1998). Overt and relational aggression in Russian nursery-school-age children: Parenting style and marital linkages.?Developmental Psychology,?34(4), 687?697. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.34.4.687
  14. Goodwin, R. (1991). Parenting Styles and the Adolescent.?Pastoral Care in Education,?9(4), 17?20. doi: 10.1080/02643949109470764
  15. Bank, L., Patterson, G. R., & Reid, J. B. (1987). Delinquency Prevention Through Training Parents in Family Management.?The Behavior Analyst,?10(1), 75?82. doi: 10.1007/bf03392409
  16. Jackson, C., &Foshee, V. A. (1998). Violence-Related Behaviors of Adolescents.?Journal of Adolescent Research,?13(3), 343?359. doi: 10.1177/0743554898133006
  17. Hoeve, M., Smeenk, W., Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Laan, P. H. V. D., Gerris, J. R. M., &Dubas, J. S. (2007). Long-Term Effects of Parenting and Family Characteristics on Delinquency of Male Young Adults.?European Journal of Criminology,?4(2), 161?194. doi: 10.1177/1477370807074854
  18. Ainsworth, M. S. (1979). Infant?mother attachment.?American Psychologist,?34(10), 932?937. doi: 10.1037/0003-066x.34.10.932
  19. Adshead, G. (2002). Three degrees of security: Attachment and forensic institutions.?Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health,?12(S2). doi: 10.1002/cbm.2200120605
  20. Young, S. K., Fox, N. A., & Zahn-Waxler, C. (1999). The relations between temperament and empathy in 2-year-olds.?Developmental Psychology,?35(5), 1189?1197. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.35.5.1189
  21. Cohen, D., &Strayer, J. (1996). Empathy in conduct-disordered and comparison youth.?Developmental Psychology,?32(6), 988?998. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.32.6.988
  22. Schaffer, M., Clark, S., &Jeglic, E. L. (2008). The Role of Empathy and Parenting Style in the Development of Antisocial Behaviors.?Crime & Delinquency,?55(4), 586?599. doi: 10.1177/0011128708321359
  23. Guymer, E. C., Mellor, D., Luk, E. S. L., &Pearse, V. (2001). The Development of a Screening Questionnaire for Childhood Cruelty to Animals.?Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry,?42(8), 1057?1063. doi: 10.1111/1469-7610.00805
  24. Jolliffe, D., & Farrington, D. P. (2007). Examining the relationship between low empathy and self-reported offending.?Legal and Criminological Psychology,?12(2), 265?286. doi: 10.1348/135532506x147413
  25. Brownlie, E. B., Beitchman, J. H., Escobar, M., Young, A., Atkinson, L., Johnson, C., ? Douglas, L. (2004). Early Language Impairment and Young Adult Delinquent and Aggressive Behavior.?Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology,?32(4), 453?467. doi: 10.1023/b:jacp.0000030297.91759.74
  26. Smith, H. M. (2014). The Subjective Moral Duty to Inform Oneself before Acting.?Ethics,?125(1), 11?38. doi: 10.1086/677024
  27. Frank, J., Brandl, S. G., & Watkins, R. C. (1997). The content of community policing: a comparison of the daily activities of community and ?beat? officers.?Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management,?20(4), 716?728. doi: 10.1108/13639519710368116
  28. Kelling, G., & Wilson, J. (1982).?Broken Windows[Ebook]. Retrieved from http://illinois-online.org/krassa/ps410/Readings/Wilson%20and%20Kelling%20Broken%20Windows.pdf
  29. Peters, & Jackson. (1970, January 1). Community action a force for social change? Some conceptual observations. Resolve Working Paper Series, 01-08, University of Surrey. Retrieved from http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/807439/
  30. Gotlieb, Y., &Friedmann, J. (1994). Empowerment: The Politics of Alternative Development.?Economic Geography,?70(4), 417. doi: 10.2307/143731
  31. Goldstein, D. J. (1992). Resolution in light microscopy studied by computer simulation.?Journal of Microscopy,?166(2), 185?197. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2818.1992.tb01517.x
  32. Peters, & Jackson. (1970, January 1). Community action a force for social change? Some conceptual observations. Resolve Working Paper Series, 01-08, University of Surrey. Retrieved from http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/807439/.

[Aman Tiwari (2020); A STUDY OF CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR (CAUSALITY & PREVENTION OF CRIME) Int. J. of Adv. Res. 8 (Apr). 439-447] (ISSN 2320-5407). www.journalijar.com


Aman Tiwari
National Law University Odisha (NLUO)

DOI:


Article DOI: 10.21474/IJAR01/10795       DOI URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.21474/IJAR01/10795


Share this article