28Jun 2017

PREVALENCE OF LOWER CROSSED SYNDROME IN YOUNG ADULTS: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY.

  • Professional Trainee, Department of Physiotherapy, National Institute for Locomotor Disabilities (Divynagjan), B. T. Road, Bonhoogly, Kolkata-700090, West Bengal, India.
  • Demonstrator (PT), Department of Physiotherapy, National Institute for Locomotor Disabilities (Divynagjan), B. T. Road, Bonhoogly, Kolkata-700090, West Bengal, India.
  • Senior Professional Trainee, Department of Physiotherapy, National Institute for Locomotor Disabilities (Divynagjan), B. T. Road, Bonhoogly, Kolkata-700090, West Bengal, India.
  • Assistant Professor ( PT) , Department of Physiotherapy, National Institute for Locomotor Disabilities (Divynagjan), B. T. Road, Bonhoogly, Kolkata-700090, West Bengal, India.
  • Physiotherapist, Department of physiotherapy, National Institute for Locomotor Disabilities (Divynagjan), B.T. ROAD, Bonhoogly, Kolkata-700090, West Bengal, India.
Crossref Cited-by Linking logo
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • References
  • Cite This Article as
  • Corresponding Author

Background: Lower crossed syndrome (LCS) is a musculoskeletal imbalance characterized by specific patterns of muscle weakness (Abdominals and Gluteus Maximus) and tightness ((iliopsoas and spinal extensors) that crosses between the dorsal and the ventral sides of the body. This postural imbalance among young individuals can lead to Low back pain in future. Hence, this study aims to find out the prevalence of lower crossed syndrome in young individuals in male and female subjects between the age group of 21 to 31 years. Methods: Weakness of abdominals and hip extensors muscles and tightness of hip flexors and spinal extensors muscles were measured on 200 healthy adults (117 male, 83 female). Results: SPSS version 23 was used for data analysis and result suggests that females are more prevalent to develop lower crossed syndrome than male of the same age group. 30 female volunteers out of 83 volunteers and 14 male volunteers out of 117 volunteers have LCS. Conclusion: Prevalence of developing lower crossed syndrome among young females is more than young males of same age group (21 yrs to 31 yrs).


  1. Alter MJ. Science of Flexibility. Champaign, IL;Human Kinetics; 2004.
  2. Ashmen KJ, Swanik CB, Lephart SM. Strength and flexibility characteristics of athletes with chronic low back pain. J Sport Rehabil. 1996;5:275?286.
  3. Bergmark, A. 1989. Stability of the lumbar spine: A study in mechanical engineering. Acta Orthop Scand Suppl. 230:1-54.
  4. Burton AK,Tillotson KM. is recurrent low back trouble associated with increased lumbar sagittal mobility.J Biomed Eng.1989;11:245-248.
  5. Dhanani S.A survey on prevalence of lower crossed syndrome in young females. IJPSH.2014;1: 2249-5738.10
  6. Feroz AH, Islam MN, Hasan M. The Bengali Short Form-36 was acceptable,reliable and valid in patient with rheumatoid arthritis.Journal of Clinical Epidemiology.2012:65(11)1227-1235.
  7. Frese E.Brown M.Norton BJ.Clinical reliability of manual muscle testing.middle trapezious and gluteus medius muscles.Europe PMC.1987; 67(7):1072-1076.
  8. Gajdosik R,Rieck MA,Sullivan DK,Wightman SE.Comparison of four clinical tests for assessing hamstring muscle length.JOSPT,1993;18(3):614-618.12
  9. G T Jones, G J Macfarlane. Epidemiology of low back pain in children and adolescents. Arch Dis Child2005; 90:312-316.
  10. Graven-Nielsen, T, P. Svensson, and L. Arendt-Nielsen. 1997. Effects of experimental muscle pain on muscle activity and co-ordination during static and dynamic motor function. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 105(2): 156-64.6
  11. Helewa A, Goldsmith CA, Lee P, Smythe HA, Forwell L. Does strengthening the abdominal muscles prevent low back pain- a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Rheumatology,1999:26:1808-15
  12. Janda,V.1978.Muscles, central nervous regulation and back problems. In Neurobiological mechanisms in manipulative therapy, I.M. Korr, 27-41. New York: Plenum Press.5
  13. Janda, V. 1986b. Some aspects of extracranial causes of facial pain. J Pros the t Dent 56(4): 484-7.
  14. Janda V. 1987. Muscles and motor control in low back pain: Assessment and management. In Physical therapy of the low back, L.T. Twomey, 253-78. New York: Churchill Livingstone. 1
  15. Janda, V. 1989b. Impaired muscle function in children and adolescents. Journal of Manual Medicine 4(3):157-60.
  16. Janda, V. 1993. Muscle strength in relation to muscle length, pain, and muscle imbalance. In Muscle strength. 8 of International perspectives in physical therapy, ed. K. Harms-Ringdahl, 83-91. Edinburgh:Churchill Livingstone.
  17. Janssen J.Heymsfield SB.Wang ZM.Ross R.Skeletal muscle mass and distribution in 468 men and women aged 18-88 years.J Appl Physiol.2014;116(10):1342.
  18. Jones GT, Macfarlane GJ. Epidemiology of low back pain in children and adolescents Arch Dis Child 2005; 90:312?316.
  19. Kendall, F.P., E.K. McCreary, and P.G. Provance. 1993. Testing and function. 4th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.
  20. Kisner C .Colby L A.Therapeutic exercise.5thJAYPEE.2007.pg 240.
  21. Vrugt A.The Contribution of Bodily Posture to Gender Stereotypical Impressions. Social Behavior and Personality.2000;28(1):91-104.
  22. Magee D .orthopedic physical assessment.WB Saunders 4th Ed .2002 ? pg 478, 483,
  23. Maughan RJ; Watson JS; Weir J (May 1983).Strength and cross-sectional area of human skeletal muscle\\\".The Journal of Physiology.1983.?338: 37?49.
  24. Mills M.Frank B.Goto S.Blackburn T.Clark M.Aguilar A.Fava N.Effect of restricted hip flexor muscle length on hip extensor muscle activity and lower extremity biomechanics in college aged female soccer players.IJSPT.2015;10(7):946.
  25. Morey J. , Cydne Fuller, Jessica Marshall, Amanda Wright, MPH,William J. Hanney,The reliability and concurrent validity of scapular plane shoulder elevation measurements using a digital inclinometer and goniometer.2012;28(2):161-168.11
  26. Norkin CC,White DJ.Measurment of joint motion-a guide to goniometry 3rd,Philadelphia,F.A Davis Company 2004:p.334-336,340,
  27. Opar DA, Williams MD, Shield AJ. Hamstring strain injuries: factors that lead to injury and re-injury. Sports Med. 2012;3:209-226.
  28. Parashar P, Arunmozhi R, C Kapoor. Prevalence of low back pain due to abdominal weakness in collegiate young females. 2014.2(1).
  29. Robinson H S.Mengshoel A M.Assessments of lumbar flexion range of motion. SPINE Volume 39 , Number? 4 , pp? E270 - E275.
  30. Sahrmann, S.A. 2002. Does postural assessment contribute to patient care? J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 32(8): 376-79.
  31. Sararaks S, Azman A B, Low L L Validity and Reliability of the SF?36: The Malaysian Context Med J Malaysia 2005 June:60(2):163-7
  32. Schoonman, DC. Lower back pain: Chronic lower back pain and lower Crossed Syndrome.
  33. Scott C Cuthbert, George J Goodheart,Jr.on the reliability and validity of manual? muscle testing.2007;25(4);1746-1340.
  34. Sherrington, C S . 1907. On reciprocal innervation of antagonistic muscles. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 79B: 337.7
  35. Sinha R, Van den, Heuvel WJ. Validity and reliability of MOS short form health survey (sf-36) for use in India. Indian J Community Med 2013; 38: 22-6.13
  36. Vella C.M.S. Kravitz L.Gender Differences in Fat Metabolism\\\".?The University of New Mexico.2014

[Shriya Das, Bibhuti Sarkar, Rachana Sharma, Malika Mondal, Pravin Kumar and Pallavi Sahay. (2017); PREVALENCE OF LOWER CROSSED SYNDROME IN YOUNG ADULTS: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY. Int. J. of Adv. Res. 5 (6). 2217-2228] (ISSN 2320-5407). www.journalijar.com


Shriya Das,
Professional Trainee, Department of Physiotherapy, National Institute for Locomotor Disabilities (Divynagjan)

DOI:


Article DOI: 10.21474/IJAR01/4662       DOI URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.21474/IJAR01/4662


Share this article