02Oct 2019

EFFECT OF ROW SPACING, MINERAL AND ORGANIC FERTILIZERS ON YIELD AND GROWTH PARAMETERS OF PANICUM MAXIMUM ON FERRALITIC SOIL IN BENIN (WEST AFRICA).

  • Departement de Production Animale, Faculte des Sciences Agronomiques, Universite de Abomey-Calavi, 03 BP 2819 Jericho, Cotonou, Benin.
  • Departement de Production Vegetale, Faculte des Sciences Agronomiques, Universite de Abomey-Calavi, 03 BP 2819 Jericho, Cotonou, Benin.
  • Departement de l Amenagement et Gestion des Ressources Naturelles, Faculte des Sciences Agronomiques, Universite de Abomey-Calavi, 03 BP 2819 Jericho, Cotonou, Benin.
Crossref Cited-by Linking logo
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • References
  • Cite This Article as
  • Corresponding Author

This study proposes to evaluate the influence of the spacing row and NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer and goat manure on Panicum maximum seed production and fodder nutritive value harvested in south Benin on ferralitic soil from 2015 to 2017. The experiment was a factorial design comprising all combinations of 4 row spacings (20, 40, 60 and 80 cm) and 6 fertilizers: six levels of fertilizer: (F0) No goat manure (Control) (F1), 100 kg NPK 15-15-15, (F2) 20 t/ha goat manure, (F3) 15 t/ha goat manure, (F4) 10t/ha goat manure + 33kg NPK 15-15-15 and (F5) 5 tons + 66 Kg NPK/ha. Four replications were used in the experiment. The results showed that wider row spacing (60 cm) enhanced seed production in this experiment. Number of total tillers/tussock, fertile tillers/tussocks and spike length were significantly greater under the widest rows spacing (60 cm and 80 cm). The best seed yield got with row spacing 60 cm (392.1 kg.ha-1) and 45.5% of caryopses germinate after six months of storage against 14.5% for spikelet. Seed yield and its attributes increased significantly with NPK combined to goat manures (F4).


  1. Abbas, G., Ali, M.A., Azam, M. and Hussain, I., (2009): Impact of Planting Methods on Wheat Grain Yield and Yield Contributing parameters. J. Anim. Plant Sci. 19(1):30-33.
  2. Adeniyan, N. and Ojeniyi, S.O., (2005): Effect of poultry manure, NPK 15-15-15 and combination of their reduced levels on maize growth and soil chemical properties. Nigerian J. Soil Sci. 15:34-41.
  3. Adeoye, P.A., Adebayo, S.E. and Musa, J.J., (2011): Growth and yield response of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata ) to poultry and cattle manures as amendments on sandy loam soil plot. Agric. Journal. 6(5): 218?221.
  4. Adjolohoun S, Bindelle J, Adandedjan C, Toleba SS, Houinato M, kindomihou V, ?Nonfon, W.R.V. and Sinsin, B. (2013b):Influence de l???cartement et de la fertilisation azot?e sur le rendement et la qualit? des semences de Brachiaria ruziziensis en climat tropical sub-humide.? Fourrages, 216:339-345.
  5. Adjolohoun, S., Dahouda, M., Adandedjan, C., Toleba, S.S., Kindomihou, V. and Sinsin, B.A. (2013a): Evaluation of biomass production and nutritive value of nine Panicum maximum ecotypes in Central region of Benin, Afr. J. Agric. Res., 8(17): 1661-1668.
  6. Adjolohoun, S. (2008) Yield, nutritive value and effects on soil fertility of forage grasses and legumes cultivated as ley pastures in the Borgou region of Benin. Facult? universitaire des Sciences agronomiques, Gembloux (Belgique) 109 p.
  7. Adjolohoun, S., Dahouda, M., Adandedjan, C., Toleba, S.S., Houinato, M., Nonfon, W.R. and Sinsin, B. (2012): Diversit? et caract?risation morphologique des ?cotypes de l??esp?ce fourrag?re Panicum maximum au B?nin. J. Biol. Chem. Sci., 6(5), 2043-2054. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ijbcs.v6i5.14.
  8. Alemayehu, A., Wassu, M., Tamado, T. (2015): Effect of Seed Sources and Rates on Productivity of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum l.) Varieties at Kersa, Eastern Ethiopia, MSc thesis.
  9. Ayeni, L.S., Adetunji, M.T., Ojeniyi, S.O., Ewulo, B.S. and Adeyemo, A.J. (2008): Comparative and Cumulative Effect of Cocoa Pod Husk Ash and Poultry Manure on Soil and Maize Nutrient Contents and Yield. Amer.-Eur. J. of Sust. Agri. 2(1): 92-97.
  10. Baloch, M.S., Shah, I.T.H., Nadim, M.A., Khan, M.I., Khakwani, A.A. (2010): Effect of Seeding Density, and Planting Time on Growth and Yield Attributes Wheat. J. Anim. Plant Sci., 20(4):239-240.
  11. Barbieri, P.A. (2000): Row spacing effects at different levels of nitrogen availability in maize. Agron. J., 92, 283-288.
  12. Baskin, C.C. and Baskin, J.M. (1998): Seeds-ecology, biogeography, and evolution of dormancy and germination. San Diego: Academic Press.
  13. Bokhtiar, S.M. and Sakurai, K. (2005): Effects of organic manure and chemical fertilizer on soil fertility and productivity of plant and ratoon crops of sugarcane. Arch. Agron. Soil Sci. 51: 325 - 334.
  14. Buldgen, A., Michiels, B., Adjolohoun, S., Babatound?, S., Adand?djan, C. (2001): Production and nutritive value of grasses cultivated in the coastal area of Benin. Trop. Grassl., 35: 43-47.
  15. Cook, B.G., Pengelly, B.C., Brown, S.D., Donnelly, J.L., Eagles, D.A., Franco, M.A., Hanson, J., Mullen, B.F., Partridge, I.J., Peters, M., Schultze-Kraft, R. (2005): The Production of Tropical Forages?: An alternative selection tool. Available <http://www.tropicalforages.info> accessed on [15/09/2019].
  16. Delate K. and Camberdella C.A., (2004): Agro-ecosystem performance during transition to certified organic grain production. J., 96 (5), 1288?1298.
  17. Dutta, S., Pal, R., Chakeraborty, A. and Chakrabarti, K. (2003) Influence of integrated plant nutrient phosphorus and sugarcane and sugar yields. Field Crop Res., 77:43 - 49.
  18. Ewulo, B.S., Babadele, O.O. and Ojeniyi, S.O. (2009): Sawdust Ash and Urea Effect on Soil and Plant Nutrient Content and Yield of Tomato: -Eurasian J. Sustain. Agric., 3 (1): 88-92.
  19. Farag, A.M., C.J., Boese D.F., Woodward and Bergman, H.L. (1994): Physiological changes and tissue metals accumulation in rainbow trout exposed to foodborne and waterborne metals. Toxicol. Chem., 13:2021?2029.
  20. Febles, G., Ruiz, T.E., Padilla, C., P?rez, J., Aguilar, M., Guizado, I. (1997)?: Efecto de la densidad de plantas y la nutrici?n mineral en la producci?n de semillas de hierba de guinea var. Com?n (Panicum m?ximum Jacq). Cub. Cienc. Agr?c., 31 (2):137-148.
  21. Gbenou, B., Adjolohoun, S., Ahoton, L., Houndjo, D.B.M., Aliou, S., Houinato, M. and Sinsin, B.A. (2018a): Livestock manure quantification and their plant nutrient contents for crop and forage production in Benin. Sci. Res. J. 8(5): 117-125.
  22. Gbenou, B., Adjolohoun, S., Houndjo, D., Dahouda, M., Sa?dou, A., Ahoton, L., Houinato, M. et Sinsin, B., (2018b)?: Syst?mes d???levage et caract?risation des d?jections des porcs au Sud-B?nin. Journ?es scientifiques organis?es ? l??Ecole Polytechnique d??Abomey-Calavi (B?nin), du 5 au 7 f?vrier 2018 au campus universitaire d??Abomey-Calavi.
  23. Gbenou, B., Adjolohoun, S., Houndjo, D.B.M., Sa?dou, A., Ahoton, L., Houinato, M., Dahouda, M., Sinsin, A.B. (2019): Difficulties to the crops forage integration in agricultural farms in the Sudanian area of Benin (West Africa). Int. J. Sci. Res., 8 (5): 152- 159.
  24. Hayatullah, K. Muhammad, AK.., Iqtidar, H., Muhamad, Z.K., Masood, K.K.. (2000): Effects of Sowing Methods and Seed Rates on Grain Yield and Yield Components of Wheat Variety Pak-8. J. Biol. Sci., 3(7):1177-1179.
  25. Hopkinson, J.M., Souza, F.H.D., De Diulgheroff, S., Ortiz, A., S?nchez, M. (1996): Reproductive physiology, seed production and seed quality of Brachiaria. In Brachiaria: Biology, Agronomy and Improvement, Milles JW, Maass BL, Valle CB, Kumble V. (eds). CIAT publication, n??259, Cali (Colombia); 124-140.
  26. Houndjo, D.B.M., Adjolohoun, S., Gbenou, B., Sa?dou, A., Ahoton, L., Houinato, M., Seibou Toleba, S., Sinsin, B.A. (2018): Socio-demographic and economic characteristics, crop-livestock production systems and issues for rearing improvement: A review. Int. J. Biol. Chem. Sci. 12(1): 519-541.
  27. Hsu, J.H. and Lo, S.L. (1999): Chemical and spectroscopic analysis of organic matter transformations during composting of pig manure. Environ Pollution, 104: 189?196.
  28. Humphreys, L.R. and Riveros, F. (1986): Tropical Pasture Seed Production, 3edn. FAO Plant Production and Protection Paper, Rome.
  29. Humphries, S.E., Groves, R.H. and Mitchell, D.S. (1991): Plant invasions: The incidence of environmental weeds in Australia. Kowari, 2,1?134.
  30. ITIS (2012). Integrated taxonomic information system [Internet]. [cited 2018 Feb 20]. Available from: http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=URMA3
  31. Joaquin, T.B.M., Hern?ndez, G.A., P?rez, P.J., Herrera, H.J.G., Garc?a, S.G., Trejo, L.C. (2001): Efecto del nitr?geno y fecha de cosecha sobre el rendimiento y calidad de semilla de pasto guinea. T?c. Pecu. M?x., 39, 245-254.
  32. Koura, B.I. (2015): Improvement of Animal Productivity by Using Crop Residues in Integrated Crop-livestock System in Benin. PhD Thesis, 216 p. University of Abomey-Calavi, Benin.
  33. Kumar, D., Dwivedi, G.K., Singh, S.N. (2005): Seed yield and quality of buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) as influenced by row spacing and fertilizer level. Trop Grassl, 39 (2):107-111.
  34. Lesse, D.P.A.A. (2016). Gestion et mod?lisation de la dynamique des parcours de transhumance dans un contexte de variabilit?s climatiques au nord-est du B?nin. Th?se de doctorat, Universit? d??Abomey-Calavi, B?nin, 299 p.
  35. Mat?as, C. and Ruz V. (1992)?: fecto de la densidad y distancia de siembra sobre la producci?n de semilla de Brachiaria decumbens Basilisk. Pastos yForrajes, 15(3):219-224.
  36. Mengistu, D., Bezabih, M., Hendricks, W.H., Pellikaan, W.F. (2016): Preference of goats (Capra hircus L.) for tanniniferous browse species available in semi-arid areas in Ethiopia. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr., 2016.
  37. Musco, , Koura, I.B., Tudisco, R., Awadjih?, G., Adjolohoun, S., Cutrignelli, M.I., Mollica, M.P., Houinato, M., Infascelli, F., Calabr?, S. (2016): Nutritional Characteristics of Forage Grown in South of Benin, Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. Vol. 29, No. 1: 51-61.
  38. Oad, F.C., Buriro, U.A., Agha, S.K. (2004): Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizer application on maize fodder production. Asian J. Plant Sci. 3(3): 375-377.
  39. Ozturk, A., Caglar, O., Bulut, S. (2006): Growth and yield response of facultative wheat to winter sowing, freezing sowing and spring sowing at different seeding rates. J. Agron. Crop Sci. 192:10-16.
  40. Phaikaew, C., Khemsawat, C., Tudsri, S., Ishii, Y., Numaguchi, H., Tsuzuki, E. (2001b): Effects of plant spacing and sowing time on seed yield and seed quality ofPaspalum atratum in Thailand. Trop. Grassl., 35(3): 129-138.
  41. Phaikaew, C., Nakamanee, G., Intarit, S., Tudsri, S., Ishii, Y., Numaguchi, H., Tsuzuki, E. (2002): Effects of soil fertility and fertiliser nitrogen rate on seed yield and seed quality of Paspalum atratum in Thailand. Trop. Grassl., 36: 138-149.
  42. Phaikaew, C., Pholsen, P., Tudsri, S., Tsuzuki, E., Numaguchi, H., Ishii, Y. (2001a): Maximising seed yield and seed quality of Paspalum atratum through choice of harvest method. Grassl., 35: 11-18.
  43. Prabu, T., Narwadkar, P.R., Sanindranath, A.K. and Rafi, M. (2003): Effect of integrated nutrient management on growth and yield of okra cv. Parbhani Kranti. Orissa J. Hort., 31 (1): 17-21.
  44. Rezvani, M., Sadatian, S.A., Nikkhahkouchaksaraei, H. (2016): Factors affecting seed dormancy and germination of greater bur-parsley (Turgenia latifolia). Planta Daninha, Doi: 10.1590/S0100-83582018360100125.
  45. Rincker, C.M., Marble, V.L., Brown, D.E., Johansen, C.A. (1988): Seed production practices. In: Hanson C.H. (ed.) Alfalfa Science and Technology, Agronomy 29, pp. 985?1012. Madison, WI, USA: ASA, CSSA and SSSA Publishers.
  46. Shahzad, M.A., Wasi-ud-Din Sahi, S.T., Khan, M., Ehsanullah, M., Ahmad, M. (2007): Effect of sowing dates and seed treatment on grain yield and quality of wheat. Pakistan J. Agric. Sci. 44:581-583.
  47. Sharma, S.K., Yadav, M.S. and Rajora M.P. (2002).: Effect of row spacing and fertilizers on growth and seed yield in buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris ) var. CAZRI 75. Seed Res, 30(1):56-59.
  48. Simon, B.K. and Jacobs, S.W.L. (2003): Megathyrsus, a new genetic name for Panicum subgenus Megathyrsus. Austrobaileya. 6:571?
  49. Tewodros, A., Bereket, A. and Tarekegn, Y. (2017): Response of Wheat (Tritium aestivum L.) to Variable Seed Rates: the Case of Hawassa Area, Southern Ethiopia. J. Agric. Res.. 12(14): 1177-1181. DOI: 10.5897/AJAR2017.12196.
  50. Wilson, J.R. (1994): Cell wall characteristics in relation to forage digestion by ruminants. J. Agric. Sci., 122: 173- 182.

[Gbenou Basile, Adjolohoun Sebastien, Houndjo Daniel Bignon Maxime, Saidou Aliou, Ahoton Leonard, Houinato Marcel and Sinsin Augustin Brice. (2019); EFFECT OF ROW SPACING, MINERAL AND ORGANIC FERTILIZERS ON YIELD AND GROWTH PARAMETERS OF PANICUM MAXIMUM ON FERRALITIC SOIL IN BENIN (WEST AFRICA). Int. J. of Adv. Res. 7 (10). 16-27] (ISSN 2320-5407). www.journalijar.com


GBENOU Basile
Département de Production Animale, Faculté des Sciences Agronomiques, Université d’Abomey-Calavi, 03 BP 2819 Jéricho, Cotonou, Benin

DOI:


Article DOI: 10.21474/IJAR01/9801       DOI URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.21474/IJAR01/9801


Share this article