10Aug 2018


  • Laboratoire de Physiologie Animale (LA.PA), Universit? Ouaga I Pr. Joseph KI-ZERBO, 03 BP 7021 Ouagadougou 03 (Burkina Faso).
  • Laboratoire de Biochimie et de Chimie Appliqu?es (LA.BIO.C.A), Universit? Ouaga I Pr. Joseph KI-ZERBO, 03 BP 7021 Ouagadougou 03 (Burkina Faso).
Crossref Cited-by Linking logo
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • References
  • Cite This Article as
  • Corresponding Author

Breastfeeding is widely recognized to have many health benefits for both infants and mothers and in developing countries, women rely on medicinal plants to increase breast milk production. Euphorbia hirta is one of the medicinal plants used in Burkina Faso for the treatment of lactation insufficiency. The purpose of this study was to investigate its effect on milk production. Previous studies were achieved to identify phytochemical compounds, to assess innocuity and antioxidant activity of the plant. Oral acute and sub-acute toxicity were carried out as described by Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) 2001 and 2008, respectively. Several methods including Diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Ferric reducing power (FRAP), Lipid peroxidation were used to evaluate antioxidant activity. The effect of Euphorbia hirta on milk production was assess in lactating rats. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of steroids and triterpenoids, tannins, flavonoids, coumarins, anthocyanosids, reducing sugars. The plant exhibited strong antioxidant potential. Limit test of 2000 mg/kg b.w. did not cause any mortality and no signs of acute toxicity suggesting that the plant is practically non-toxic. Concerning sub-acute toxicity, no mortality and no signs of toxicity were observed in all the extract treated groups similarly to control group. Haematological and biochemical parameters were not affected by the extract, therefore the plant is safe for use when it is administered orally. The extract treated rats produced higher milk than blank and reference controls. The body weight gain of the pups was 2.40?0.08, 2.81?0.22 and 2.78?0.28 for blank, reference controls and extract treated group, respectively. Euphorbia hirta contains several phytochemical compounds which may stimulate milk production in mammalian.

  1. Akers, R. M. (1985): Lactogenic hormones: binding sites, mammary growth, secretory cell differentiation, and milk biosynthesis in ruminants. Dairy Sci., 68:501-519
  2. Amarowicz; R., Naczk, M., Shahidi, F. (2000): antioxidant activity of crude tannins of Canola and Rapeseed Hhulls. A. O. C. S., 77(9): 957-961.
  3. Azizah, M., Muhammad, N.O., Nurziana, N. (2012): Galactagogue effects of Musa x paradisiaca flower extract on lactating rats. Asian Pacific J. Trop. Med., 882-886.
  4. Baig, M. I., Bhagwat, V. G. (2009): Study the efficacy of galactin vet bolus on milk yield in dairy cows. World, 2 (4): 140-142.
  5. Bakr, R. O., El-Raey, M. Abd El A., Farouk, C. N., Ahmed, H.E., Said, O. M. E. (2012): Radical scavenging activity and cytotoxicity of Euphorbia hirta growing in egypt. Int. J. Phytomed., 4: 525-530.
  6. Basma, A. A., Zuraini, Z., Lacimanan, Y. L., Sreenivasan, S. (2011): Antioxidant activity and phytochemical screening of the methanol extracts of Euphorbia hirta Asian Pacific J. Trop. Med., 386-390.
  7. Boutinaud, M., Guinard-Flament, J., Jammes, H. (2004): The number and activity of mammary epithelial cells determining factors for milk production. Nutr. Dev., 44: 499-508
  8. Castillo, C., Pereira, V., Abuelo, A., Hern?ndez, J., (2013): Effect of supplementation with antioxidants on the quality of bovine milk and meat production. World J., 1-8.
  9. Capuco, A. V., Ellis, S. E., Hale, S. A., Long E., Erdman, R. A., Zhao, X., Paape, M. J. (2003): Lactation persistency: Insights from mammary cell proliferation studies. Anim. Sci., 81(3):18-31
  10. Ciulei, I. (1982): Methodology for analysis of vegetable drug. Practical manual on industrial utilization of medicinal and aromatic plants, Bucharest, Ministry of Chemical industry, 67 p.
  11. Colin Binns, M. B. B. S., MiKyung Lee, M. A., Wah Yun Low (2016): The long-term public health benefits of breastfeeding. Asia-Pacific J. Public Health, 28 (1): 7-14.
  12. Danforth, K. N., Tworoger, S. S., Hecht, J. L., Rosner, B. A., Colditz, G. A., Hankinson, S. E. (2007): Breastfeeding and risk of ovarian cancer in two prospective cohorts. Caus. Control, 18: 517-523.
  13. Diallo, A., Eklu-Gadegkeku, K., Agbonon, A., Aklikokou, K., Creppy, E. E., Gbeassor, M. (2010): Acute and sub-chronic ( 28-day ) oral toxicity studies of hydroalcohol leaf extract of Ageratum conyzoides L ( Asteraceae ). J. Pharm.Res., 9 (5): 463-467.
  14. Deleke-koko, I. K. E., Djego, J., Gbenou, J., Hounzangbe-Adote, S. M., Sinsin, B. (2011). Etude phytochimique des principales plantes galactog?nes et emm?nagogues utilis?es dans les terroirs riverains de la zone cyn?g?tique de la Pendjari, J. Biol. Chem. Sci., 5 (2): 618-633.
  15. Doukour?, M., Bayala,, B., Tindano, B., Belemtougri, G. R., Tamboura, H. H., Nwabo Kamdje, A. H., Sawadogo, L. (2018): Ethnobotanical Survey and Biological Activities of Two Lactogenic Plants in the Cascades Region of Burkina Faso. Dis. Med. Pl.. 4 (1): 1-8.
  16. Dubey, S., Mehta, S. C. (2012): Hepatoprotective activity of Euphorbia hirta Linn plant against carbon tetrachloride -induced hepatic injury in rats. Pharm. Sci. Inn., 1 (3): 98-101.
  17. Flint, D. J., Gardner, M., (1994): Evidence that growth hormone stimulates milk synthesis by direct action on the mammary gland and that prolactin exerts effects on milk secretion by maintenance of mammary deoxyribonucleic acid content and tight junction status. Endo., 35 (3): 1119-1124.
  18. Gatti, L. (2008): Maternal perceptions of insufficient milk supply in breastfeeding. J Nurs Scholarsh, 40 (4): 355-363.
  19. Guenn?, S., Hilou, A., Meda, R. N. T., Ouattara, N., Kiendreb?ogo, M., Millogo, J. F., Nacoulma, O. G. (2012): Screening of antioxidant, anti-acetylcholinesterase and antifungal activities and HPLC-MS identification of the bioactive phenolics of Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk. J. Phytomed., 4 (4): 469-476.
  20. Hinneburg, I., Dorman, H. J. D., Hiltunen, R. (2006): Antioxidant activities of extracts from selected culinary herbs and spices. Food Chem., 97: 122-129.
  21. Hodge, H.C., Sterner, J.H. (1943). Determination of substance acute toxicity by LD 50 . Ind. Hyg. Assoc., 10: 93
  22. Jaouad, E. H., Zafar, H. I., Badi?a, L. (2004): Acute and chronic toxicological studies of Ajuga iva in experimental animals. Ethnopharm., 91: 43-50.
  23. Kandalkar, A., Patel, A., Darade, S., Baviskar, D. (2010): Free radical scavenging activity of Euphorbia hirta leaves and isolation of active flavonoid myricitrin. Asian J. Pharm. Clinic. Res, 3 (3): 234-237.
  24. Kahkeshani, N., Hadjiakhoondi, A., Maafi, N., Khanavi, M. (2015): Standardization of a galactogogue herbal mixture based on its total phenol and flavonol contents and antioxidant activity. J. Pharm., 2 (1): 35-39.
  25. Kluwe, W. M. (1981): Renal function tests as indicators of kidney injury in subacute toxicity studies. App. Pharm., 57: 414-424.
  26. Lanhers, M.-C., Nicolas, J.-P., Fleurentin, J., Weniger, B. (2005): Monographie de Euphorbia Hirta Ethnopharma., 36: 9-23
  27. Lanhers, M.-C., Fleurentin, J., Cabalion, P., Rolland, A., Dorfman, P., Misslinb, R., Peltan, J.-M. (1990): Behavioral effects of Euphorbia hirta sedative and anxiolytic properties. J. Ethnopharm., 29: 189-198.
  28. Lompo-Ouedraogo, Z., Heide Daan van der, Beek E. M van der, Swarts Hans, J M., Mattheij, J. A. M., Sawadogo, L. (2004). Effect of aqueous extract of Acacia nilotica var adansonii on milk production and prolactin release in the rat. Endocrinol., 182: 257-266.
  29. Majewska, M., Skrzycki, M., Podsiad, M., Czeczot, H. (2011): Evaluation of antioxidant potential of flavonoids: an in vitro Acta Poloniae Pharmaceut. Drug Res., 68 (4): 611-615
  30. Mohajeri, D., Mousavi, G., Mesgari, M., Doustar, Y., Nouri, M. H. K. (2007): Subacute toxicity of Crocus sativus (Saffron) stigma ethanolic extract in rats. American J. Pharm. Toxicol., 2 (4): 189-193.
  31. OECD (2008): Lignes Directrices de L?OCDE pour les essais de produits chimiques: ?tude de toxicit? orale ? dose r?p?t?e pendant 28 jours sur les rongeurs. 407: 14p.
  32. OECD (2001): Lignes Directrices de L?OCDE pour les essais de produits chimiques?: Toxicit? orale aigu? - M?thode de la dose pr?d?termin?e. 420: 15p.
  33. Okamura, H., Mimura, A., Yakou, Y., Niwano, M., Takahara, Y. (1993). Antioxidant activity of tannins and flavonoids in Eucalyptus? rostrata. , 33(3): 557-56.
  34. Ohkawa, H., Ohishi, N., Yagi, K. (1979): Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues thiobarbituric acid reaction. l Biochem., 95: 351-358.
  35. Olorunnisola, O. S., Bradley, G., Afolayan, A. J. (2012): Acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies of methanolic extract of Tulbaghia violacea rhizomes in wistar rats . African J. Biotechnol., 11(83): 14934-14940.
  36. Ou?draogo, M., Zerbo, P., Konat?, K., Barro, N., Sawadogo, L. L. (2013): Effect of long-term use of Sida rhombifolia extract on haemato-biochemical parameters of experimental animals. Br. J. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 4(1): 18-24
  37. Ping, K. Y., Darah, I., Chen, Y., Sreeramanan, S., Sasidharan, S. (2013): Acute and subchronic toxicity study of Euphorbia hirta methanol extract in rats. BioMed. Res. Int., 1-14.
  38. Qaisar, M., NaeemuddinGilani, S., Farooq, S., Rauf, A., Naz, R., Shaista, Perveez, S. (2012): Preliminary comparative phytochemical screening of Euphorbia American-Eurasian J. Agric. Environ. Sci., 12 (8): 1056-1060.
  39. Sultana, A. Rahman, K. U., MS, M. S. (2013): Clinical update and treatment of lactation insufficiency. J. Islamic World Academy Sci., 21 (1): 19-28.
  40. Sjolin, S., Hofvander, Y., Hillervik, C. (1977): Factors related to early termination of brestfeeding. Paediatr. Scand., 66: 505?511.
  41. Sawadogo, L. (1987): Contribution ? l??tude des plantes m?dicinales et de la pharmacop?e traditionnelle africaine cas des plantes lactog?nes, Th?se d?Etat, 172p.
  42. Shih, M. F., Cherng, J. Y. (2006): Potential applications of Euphorbia hirta in pharmacology. Drug Discovery Res. Pharm., 8:166-180
  43. Tiwari, P., Kumar, K., Pandey, A. K, Pandey, A., Sahu, P.K. (2011): Antihepatotoxic activity of Euphorbia hirta and by using the combination of Euphorbia hirta and Boerhaavia diffusa extracts on some experimental models of liver injury in rats. J. Inno. Pharm. Res., 2(2): 126-130.
  44. Victora, C. G., Bahl, R., Barros, A. J. D., Fran?a, G. V. A., Horton, S., Krasevec, J., Murch, S., Sankar, M. J., Walker, N., Rollins, N. C. (2016): Breastfeeding in the 21st Century : Epidemiology, mechanisms and lifelong effect. Lancet 387: 475-490
  45. Vyas, N., Argal, A. (2012): Nephroprotective effect of ethanolic extract of roots and oleanolic acid isolated from roots of Lantana camara. J. Pharmacol. Clin. Sci., 1:54-60
  46. Wasan, K. M., Najafi, S., Wong, J., Kwong, M. (2001): Assessing plasma lipid levels, body weight and hepatic and renal toxicity following chronic oral administrationof a water soluble phytostanol compound, FM-VP4 to germils. Pharm. Pharmaceut. Sci., 4(3): 228-234
  47. Weiss, W. P. (2005): Antioxidant nutrients, cow health, and milk quality. Penn State Dairy Cattle Nutrition Workshop. 11-18
  48. WHO (2009): Infant and young child feeding model chapter for textbooks for medical student and allied health professionals. Session 1.
  49. Yang, F. L., Li, X. S. (2015): Role of antioxidant vitamins and trace elements in mastitis in dairy cows. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 2 (1): 1-9.
  50. Zimmermann, M. (1983). Ethical Guidelines for investigations of experimental pain in Conscious Animals. 16: 109-l10.
  51. Zuppa, A. A., Sindico, P., Orchi, C., Carducci, C., Cardiello, V., Romagnoli, C., Catenazzi, P. (2010): Safety and efficacy of galactogogues: substances that induce, maintain and increase breast milk production. Pharm. Pharmaceut. Sci., 13(2): 162-174.

[Doukour? Maya, Bayala Bale, Guenne Samson, Tindano Basile and Belemtougri Raymond. (2018); PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION, TOXICITY, ANTIOXIDANT AND LACTOGENIC ACTIVITIES OF EUPHORBIA HIRTA (L.). Int. J. of Adv. Res. 6 (Aug). 322-335] (ISSN 2320-5407). www.journalijar.com

Doukoure Maya
Laboratoire de Physiologie Animale (LA.PA), Université Ouaga I Pr. Joseph KI-ZERBO, 03 BP 7021


Article DOI: 10.21474/IJAR01/7524      
DOI URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.21474/IJAR01/7524