20May 2019


  • Department of Botany,CMS College Kottayam (Autonomous),Kottayam,Kerala,India-686001.
  • Department of Botany,Government College Kottayam,Kerala,India.
  • Department of Botany,St.Thomas College (Autonomous),Thrissur,Kerala,India.
  • School of Environmental Sciences,Mahatma Gandhi University,Kottayam,Kerala ,India.
Crossref Cited-by Linking logo
  • Abstract
  • References
  • Cite This Article as
  • Corresponding Author

The present study documents the characterization of essential oils obtained from different species of the genus Vitex L. of the family Verbenaceae. The oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The coeffiecient of similitude, percentage yield and percentage area of occurrence were calculated. The study showed the richness of volatile oils in the genus Vitex.

  1. Ahmadi, L., Mirza, M. and Shahmir, F. 2002. The volatile constituents of Artemisia marschaliana Sprengel and its secretory elements. Flavour and Fragrance Journal. 17: 141-143.
  2. Parry, E.J. 1922. The chemistry of essential oils and artificial perfumes. Vol. I and II. Scott Greenwood, London.
  3. Bowles, E. J. 2003. The Chemistry of Aromatherapeutic Oils, 3rd Griffin Press.
  4. Morone-Fortunato, I., Montemurro, C., Ruta, C., Perrini, R., Sabetta, W., Blanco, A., Lorusso, E. and Avato, P. 2010. Essential oils, genetic relationships and in vitro establishment of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don ssp. italicum from wild Mediterranean germplasm. Industrial Crops and Products.32: 639-649.
  5. Clevenger, J.F.1928.Apparatus for determination of volatile oil. Journal of American Pharmacists Association.17:346-349.
  6. Carson, C.F. and Riley, T.V. 2003. Non-antibiotic therapies for infectious diseases. Communicable Disease Intelligence. 27(Suppl.):143-146.
  7. Sneath, P.H.A. and Sokal, R.R. 1973. Numerical Taxonomy: the principles and practice of numerical classification. Freeman, San Fransisco.
  8. Mello, O.M. and Silva-Filho, M.C. 2002.Plant-insect interaction: an evolutionary arms race between two distinct defense mechanisms. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology.14:71-81
  9. Feng, C.Z., Hua, L.Y. and Lu, C.X. 1999. Study on chemical constituents of essential oil from Vitex negundo Linn. Acta Botanica Boreali-Occidentalia Sinicia. 2: 354-356.
  10. Jirovetz, L., Buchbauer, G., Puschmann, C., Shafi, M.P. and Nambiar, M.K.G.1998. Analysis of the essential oils of the leaves of the medicinal plants Vitex negundo negundo and Vitex negundo var. purpurascens from India. Acta Pharmaceutica.48:179-186.
  11. Taneja, S.C., Gupta, R.K., Dhar, K.L. and Atal, C.K.1979. The essential oil of Vitex negundo Indian Perfumer. 22:162.
  12. Rahangdale, S.S.2012. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of Resorcinol-Melamine-Formaldehyde Resin. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research. 4(10):4451-4458.
  13. Shukla, P., Shukla, P., Mishra, S.B. and Gopalakrishna, B. 2010. Screening of anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity of Vitex leucoxylon Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 42:409-11.
  14. Skaltsa, H.D., Demetzos, C., Lazari, D., and Sokovic, M. 2003. Essential oil analysis and antimicrobial activity of eight Stachys species from Greece. Phytochemistry. 64:743-752.
  15. Calcabrini, A., Stringaro, A., Toccacieli, L. and Molinari, A. 2004. Terpinen-4-ol, the main component of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil inhibits the in vitro growth of human melanoma cells. Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 122: 349-360.
  16. Takahashi, Y., Inaba, N., Kuwahara, S. and Kuki, W. 2003. Antioxidative effect of Citrus essential oil components on human low density lipoprotein in vitro. Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry. 67:195-197.
  17. Moteki, H., Hibasami, H., Yamada, Y., Katsuzaki, H., Imai, K. and Komiya, T. 2002. Specific induction of apoptosis by 1,8-cineole in two human leukemia cell lines, but not a in human stomach cancer cell line. Oncology Reports. 9: 757-760.
  18. Xin, H., Hu, Y., Zhang, Q., Huang, B., Zheng, H.H. and Qin, L.2006. Study on chemical constituents in fruits of Vitex trifolia. Academic Journal of Second Military Medical University.27:1038-40.
  19. Suksamrarn, A., Werawattanametin, K. and Brophy, J.J. 1991. Variation of essential oil constituents in Vitex trifolia Flavour and Fragrance Journal. 6(1):97-99
  20. Buchbauer, G. 2000. The detailed analysis of essential oils leads to the understanding of their properties. Perfumer and Flavorist. 25:64-67.
  21. Cheng, S.S., Huang, C.G., Chenn, Y.J., Yu, J.J., Chen, W.J. and Chang, S.T. 2009. Chemical composition and larvicidal activities of essential oils from two eucalyptus species.Bioresource Technology. 100:452-456.
  22. Ayvaz, A., Sagdic, O., Karaborklu, S. and Ozturk, I. 2010. Insecticidal activity of the essential oils from different plants against three stored-product insects. Journal of Insect Science. 10:21.
  23. Orhan, İ. E., ?z?elik, B. and Şener, B. 2011. Evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antioxidant potentials of some edible oils and their fatty acid profiles. Turkish Journal of Biology .35:251-258.
  24. Mota, K.S.L., Pereira, F.O., Oliveira, W.A., Lima, I.O. and Lima, E.O. 2012. Antifungal activity of Thymus vulgaris essential oil and its constituent phytochemicals against Rhizopus oryzae: Interaction with Ergosterol. Molecules. 17:14418-14433.
  25. Pillai, D., Mahmud, , Lee, W.C. and Perumal, S. 2012. Anti-parasitic activity of Myristica fragrans Houtt. essential oil against Toxoplasma gondii parasite. APCBEE Procedia. 2:92-96.
  26. Sangwan, N.S., Farooqi, A.H.A., Shabih, F. and Sangwan, R.S. 2001. Regulation of essential oil production in plants. Plant Growth Regulation.34:3-21.
  27. Bakkali, F., Averbeck, S., Averbeck, D. and Idaomar, M.2008. Biological effects of essential oils. Food and chemical toxicology.46-2-:446-475
  28. Lee, H.S. and Ahn, Y.J. 1998.Growing inhibiting effects of Cinnamomum cassia bark derived materials on human intestinal bacteria.Journal of .Agricultural and Food Chemistry.46:8-12.

[Rogimon P.Thomas, Asha Ramachandran, Joby Paul and Mahesh Mohan. (2019); ESSENTIAL OIL STUDIES OF THE GENUS VITEX L. (VERBENACEAE). Int. J. of Adv. Res. 7 (May). 568-574] (ISSN 2320-5407). www.journalijar.com

Rogimon P. Thomas
Assistant Professor,Department of Botany,CMS College Kottayam (Autonomous),Kerala,India


Article DOI: 10.21474/IJAR01/9074      
DOI URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.21474/IJAR01/9074