20Jan 2017

CARDIOVASCULAR ABNORMALITIES IN HIV INFECTED PEDIATRIC POPULATION IN KERALA.

Crossref Cited-by Linking logo
  • Abstract
  • References
  • Cite This Article as
  • Corresponding Author

Cardiac abnormalities associated with HIV infection increase the risk of mortality and morbidity among patients. Literature on the prevalence of these abnormalities in HIV-infected children is negligible, particularly from India. This study was conducted to evaluate and describe the cardiac anomalies associated with HIV infection in pediatric population. This cross-sectional study was done at Pediatric HIV Clinic, Medical College, Thrissur, Kerala, for a period of one year. All 64 participants of the study underwent thorough clinical evaluation and echocardiography. Data collected was analyzed using appropriate statistical methods. The mean age of the participants was 9.62±3.19 years. On physical examination, the symptoms noted were pallor (26.6%), lymph node enlargement (51.6%), opportunistic infections (79.7%), and clubbing (9.4%). Pulmonary artery hypertension (9.4%) and valvular regurgitations (26.6%) were the major echocardiographic findings among the participants. No significant association was noted between history of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH; ?2=2.676, p=0.102). Cardiac anomalies were not prevalent or were not of poor prognosis in the pediatric population in this study. Most of the cardiac anomalies seem to be subclinical in children with HIVinfection. Main cardiac abnormalities noted were mild pulmonary hypertension and mild valvular regurgitations. None of the patients had cardiomyopathy. No association could be found between cardiac abnormalities and ART status.


  1. Barbaro, G. (2002). Cardiovascular manifestations of HIV infection. Circulation, 106:1420-5.
  2. Barbaro, G., Fisher, S, D, Lipshultz, S,E. (2001). Pathogenesis of HIV-associated cardiovascular complications. Lancet Infect Dis, 1:115-24.
  3. Chelo, D., Wawo, E., Siaha, V, et al. (2015). Cardiac anomalies in a group of HIV-infected children in a pediatric hospital: an echocardiographic study in Yaounde, Cameroon. CardiovascDiagnTher, 5(6):444-53.
  4. Coodley, G, O., Loveless, M, O., Merrill, T, M. (1994). The HIV wasting syndrome: a review. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr,7:681-94.
  5. Khunnawat, C., Mukerji, S., Havlichek, D, Jr., et al. (2008). Cardiovascular manifestations in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Am J Cardiol, 102:635-42.
  6. Lipshultz, S,E., Easley, K,A., Orav, E,J., et al. (2000). Cardiac dysfunction and mortality in HIV-infected children: The Prospective P2C2 HIV Multicenter Study. Pediatric Pulmonary and Cardiac Complications of Vertically Transmitted HIV Infection (P2C2 HIV) Study Group. Circulation, 102:1542-8.
  7. Lubega, S., Zirembuzi, G,W., Lwabi, P. (2005). Heart disease among children with HIV/AIDS attending the paediatric infectious disease clinic at Mulago Hospital. Afr Health Sci, 5:219-26.
  8. Miller, R,F., Kaski, J,P., Hakim, J., et al. (2013). Cardiac disease in adolescents with delayed diagnosis of vertically acquired HIV infection. Clin Infect Dis, 56:576-82.
  9. Miller, T,L., Evans, S, J., Orav, E, J., et al. (1993). Growth and body composition in children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus-1. Am J ClinNutr, 57:588-92.
  10. Miller, T,L., Orav, E,J., Colan, S,D., et al.(1997). Nutritional status and cardiac mass and function in children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Am J ClinNutr, 66:660-4.
  11. Okoromah, C,A., Ojo, O,O., Ogunkunle, O,O. (2012). Cardiovascular dysfunction in HIV-infected children in a sub-Saharan African country: comparative cross-sectional observational study. J Trop Pediatr,58:3-11.
  12. Pellicelli, A,M., Palmierim F., D’Ambrosio, C., et al. (1998). Role of human immunodeficiency virus in primary pulmonary hypertension:case reports. Angiology, 49: 1005–11.
  13. Singh, P., Hemal, A., Agarwal, S., et al. (2015). Cardiac manifestations in HIV infected children. Indian J Pediatr, 82:230-4.
  14. World Health Organization. Global HIV/AIDS Response, Epidemic update and health sector progress towards Universal Access, progress report 2011. Available online: who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/44787/1/9789241502986_eng.pdf

[Usha Kumari S, Lathika Nayar AND Cibu Mathews (2017); CARDIOVASCULAR ABNORMALITIES IN HIV INFECTED PEDIATRIC POPULATION IN KERALA. Int. J. of Adv. Res. 5 (1). 561-565] (ISSN 2320-5407). www.journalijar.com


Dr Lathika Nayar


DOI:


Article DOI: 10.21474/IJAR01/2782       DOI URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.21474/IJAR01/2782


Share this article