29Mar 2017

SCREENING OF INFERTILE FEMALES FOR VAGINAL CANDIDIASIS.

  • 3rd Year PG Resident, Dept. of Microbiology, Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University and Medical College, Pune.
  • Associate Professor, Dept. of Microbiology, Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University and Medical College, Pune.
  • Tutor, Dept. of Microbiology, Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University and Medical College, Pune. Faculty, Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University and Medical College, Pune.
  • Professor and H.O.D., Dept. of Microbiology, Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University and Medical College, Pune.
Crossref Cited-by Linking logo
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • References
  • Cite This Article as
  • Corresponding Author

Introduction: Infertility is a major public health problem across worldwide and in India. As per WHO, 60 to 80 million couples worldwide currently suffer from infertility. The role of female reproductive tract infection, symptomatic or asymptomatic, is well recognized. Studies reveal that Candida albicans have sperm-immobilizing property which might lead to infertility. Keeping this in mind the present study was done. Aim: To screen infertile females for vaginal candidiasis. Material & Methods: 100 infertile women were screened for vaginal candidiasis. High Vaginal swab collected from them were processed for fungal culture using conventional methods. Anti-Fungal susceptibility testing was done for all the isolates of Candida spp. as per guidelines. Results: 17% of the patients suffered from vaginal candidiasis. Candida albicans followed by Candida tropicalis were the most common isolates. None of the isolates were resistant to Amphotericin B and Nystatin while maximum resistance was shown for Fluconazole. Conclusion: There was more predominance of non albicans Candida in the study thereby showing a change in causative agent of vaginal candidiasis. Moreover since studies show sperm-immobilising property of Candida spp., infertile women should be routinely screened for vaginal candidiasis.


  1. Adesiji Y.O., N. Ndukwe, B. M. Okanlawon. C Isolation and Antifungal Sensitivity to Candida Isolates in Young Females. Central Europen Journal of Medicine,2011;6(2):172-76.
  2. Ajitha Reddy, Maimoona Mustafa. Phenotypic identification of candida species and their susceptibility profile in patients with genitourinary candidiasis International Journal of Advanced Research (2014), 2(12):76-84.
  3. F E Okonofua, K A Ako-Nai, M D Dighitoghi. Lower genital tract infections in infertile Nigerian women compared with controls.Genitourin Med 1995;71:163-168.
  4. Gandhi Twinkle N, Manish G. Patel, Mannu R. Jain. Antifungal Susceptibility of Candida against Six Antifungal Drugs by Disk Diffusion Method Isolated from Vulvovaginal Candidiasis. Int J Cur Res Rev,2015;7(11):20-25.
  5. Ghiasi Mahdieh, Hoda Fazaeli, Naser Kalhor, Mohsen Sheykh-Hasan, Reza Tabatabaei-Qomi.Assessing the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis among infertile women of Qom city. IRAN. J. MICROBIOL.,2014;6(6):404-408
  6. Gupta Sapna, Goyal Ankur, Singh Saroj, Agrawal BM. Outcome of routine microbiological screening for lower genital tract infections in symptomatic non-pregnant females complaining infertility. IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences (2014);13 (1), Ver. III: 26-29.
  7. Harpreet Vander and Vijay Prabha. Evaluation of fertility outcome as a consequence of intravaginal inoculation with sperm-impairing microorganisms in a mouse model. Journal of Medical Microbiology (2015), 64, 344–347 DOI 10.1099/jmm.0.000036.
  8. Infecundity, infertility, and childlessness in developing countries. Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) Comparative reports No. 9[Internet]. World Health Organization. [cited 11 October 2016]. Available from: http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/topics/infertility/definitions/en/
  9. Khan Fouzia, Rakhshanda Baqai. In vitro antifungal sensitivity of fluconazole, Clotrimazole and nystatin against vaginal candidiasis in females of childbearing age. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2010;22(4):197-200
  10. Mathur S, Melchers JT 3rd, Ades EW, Williamson HO, Fudenberg HH. Antiovarian and anti-lymphocyte antibodies in patients with chronic vaginal candidiasis. J Reprod Immunol. 1980 Dec;2(5):247-62.
  11. National Committee on Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) document M44-A. Method for Antifungal Disk Diffusion Susceptibility Testing of Yeasts; Approved Guideline. May 2004; Vol. 24: No. 15
  12. Ogiogwa I. O. Motayo B. O., Nwanze J.C., Onoh C.C., Adeniji F.O., Okerentugba PO, Okonko I.O.Antibiogram and Occurrence Rate Of Bacteria Recovered From Patients Attending A FERTILITY Clinic In ABEOKUTA, Nigeria. Nature and Science, 2012;10(4):27-31.
  13. Paul C. Adamson, Karl Krupp, Alexandra H. Freeman, Jeffrey D. Klausner, Arthur L. Reingold,Purnima Madhivanan.Prevalence & Correlates of Primary Infertility in Mysore, India. Indian J Med Res (2011);134: 440-446.
  14. Rodríguez R , Hernández R, Fuster F, Torres A, Prieto P, Alberto J.Genital infection and infertility. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2001 Jun-Jul;19(6):261-6.
  15. Sachin C Deorukhkar, Santosh Saini. Vulvovaginal Candidiasis due to non albicans Candida: its species distribution and antifungal susceptibility profile Int. J. Curr. Microbiol App. Sci (2013) 2(12): x-xx
  16. Saleh W H. Prevalence of bacterial infection and their sensitivity in patients undergoing an infertility eval. Al - Kindy Col Med J 2010 ; Vol .6 . No. (1)
  17. Salehei Zahra, Zahra Seifi, Ali Zarei , Mahmoudabadi A.Sensitivity of Vaginal Isolates of Candida to Eight Antifungal Drugs Isolated From Ahvaz, Iran. Jundishapur J Microbiology.2012;5(4):574-577.
  18. Tian YH , Xiong JW, Hu L, Huang DH, Xiong CL.Candida albicans and filtrates interfere with human spermatozoal motility and alter the ultrastructure of spermatozoa: an in vitro study. Int J Androl. 2007 Oct;30(5):421-9. Epub 2007 Feb 12.
  19. Verghese S , Padmaja P, Asha M, Elizabeth SJ, Anitha A, Kundavi KM, Jayanthi N, Varma T. Prevalence, species distribution and antifungal sensitivity of vaginal yeasts in infertile women.Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2001 Jul;44(3):313-4.
  20. WHO laboratory manual for the examination and processing of human semen [Internet]. World Health Organization. [cited 11 October 2016]. Available from:http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/topics/infertility/definitions/en/

[Ankana Chakraborty, B. A. Dalal, S. R. Shah, C. S. Deshmukh and K. K. Lahiri. (2017); SCREENING OF INFERTILE FEMALES FOR VAGINAL CANDIDIASIS. Int. J. of Adv. Res. 5 (3). 1509-1513] (ISSN 2320-5407). www.journalijar.com


Ankana Chakraborty


DOI:


Article DOI: 10.21474/IJAR01/3659       DOI URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.21474/IJAR01/3659


Share this article