Screening and Characterization of Fungi and their associated Mycotoxins in some Fruit Crops
Abstract: The mycological analysis of five fruit crops samples revealed that, the two genera Alternaria with nine species and Fusarium with eight species were found to be the most dominant fungi on all selected fruits. Pathogenicity test on pomegranate fruits revealed that A. alternata reproduced the typical symptoms of black spots while A. alternata, A. arbusti, P. funiculsoum and A. niger were pathogenic and reproduced the typical symptoms of heart rot. On guava fruits, C. dematium, A. alternata, A. raphani, Phoma sp., Fusarium sporotrichioides, F. proliferatum and F. culmorum caused visible symptoms of fruit spot and fruit rot while, fruits inoculated with B. theobromae and Phomopsis sp. exhibited stylar end rot symptoms. Additionally, according to available literatures, this is the first report of A. alternaria and P. funiculosum as causal pathogen of black spot and heart rot of pomegranate fruits in Egypt respectively. Also, pathogenicity trails reported for the first time stylar end rot disease of guava and C. dematium as a causal pathogen of anthracnose in Egypt. Mycotoxin assay revealed that eight Fusarium species were capable of producing detectable levels of four major mycotoxins i.e. Deoxynivalenol (ranging from 7.8-405.3µg/L), Fumonisin (35.9-1121.0 µg/L), T-2 toxin (0.0-55.2 µg/L) and Zearalenone (0.0-456.9 µg/L). Nine Alternaria species was tested for produce four kinds of mycotoxins i.e. Alternariol, Tenuazonic acid, altenuene and Alternariol monomethyl ether. A. alternata associated with fruit rot of guava was able to produce the four mycotoxins and other remaining species was varied in mycotoxins production profile. All four mycotoxins were apparently not produced by A. zinniae and A. infectoria.
[M.I. Ammar and M. A. El-Naggar (2014); Screening and Characterization of Fungi and their associated Mycotoxins in some Fruit Crops Int. J. of Adv. Res. 2 (4). 0] (ISSN 2320-5407). www.journalijar.com
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