02Nov 2018


  • Dept of Civil Engineering, Centurion University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.
Crossref Cited-by Linking logo
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • References
  • Cite This Article as
  • Corresponding Author

Lightning is the science of random, uncertain, capricious celetial phenomenon. The earth is created and sustained by nitrogen fixation and ozonisation due to lightning but it has become a apocalytic event for last 20 years in the tropics and sub-tropics. Indians are highly susptible to lightning particularly the eastern India. Odisha, a coastal state in India, have special geoclimate, regularly struck by thunderstorms. The present study is probed to find the history, myths, origin, types, physics, chemistry and impacts of thunderstorms and its impact to the ecosystem and habitats of the earth. Lightning fatalities and trauma were under reported as fedral bodies were less aware of the catastrophe and were less alert till 2015. India, specially eastern zone including Odisha and Bihar are prone to the increased lightning hits which has raised the fatalities in 21st century. The average fatalities 2001- 2017 of India was 2207 and that of Odisha was 295 which is 13.36 % due to lightning whereas area wise, the state is only 4.87 % and population wise 1.005% of India. According to LIS/OTD observations of TRMM satelite of NASA, India has 17 hotspot areas of lightning with flash rate density is 121.41 fl/Km2/yr (highest at Rajaury, J&K) against earth?s highest at Lake Maracaibo, Venjuela, as 232.52 fl/Km2/yr. Odisha is tending towards a lightning hub as Bhadrak and Banapur are already included where as Mayurbhang area is awaiting the list. Observing the rate of mortlity of NW Odisha in North Eastern India, some management procedures are discussed to combat the disaster, paerticularly harnessing electricity from Lightning.

  1. Tie X, Madronich S, Walters S, Zhang R, Rasch P, Collins W, 2003, Effect of clouds on photolysis and oxidants in the troposphere, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres Vol-108 (D20)
  2. National Crime Record Bureau NCRB, Govt. of India, 2016, Accidental deaths and suicidal deaths in India -2015, National Crime Records Bureau, Ministry of Home Affairs, GOI.
  3. National Crime Record Bureau NCRB, Govt. of India, 1990, Accidental deaths and suicids in India -1990, National Crime Records Bureau, Ministry of Home Affairs, GOI.
  4. National Crime Record Bureau NCRB, Govt. of India, 2008, Accidental deaths and suicids in India -2008, National Crime Records Bureau, Ministry of Home Affairs, GOI
  5. Mukhopadhyay P, Mahakur M and Singh H A K, 2009, The interaction of large scale and mesoscale environment leading to formation of intense thunderstorms over Kolkata Part I: Doppler radar and satellite observations, Journal of Earth Syst. Sci. Vol-118 (5), pp- 441?466, October 2009,
  6. Murugavel P., Pawar S. D. and Gopalakrishan V., 2014, Climatology of lightning over Indian region and its relationship with convective available potential energy, International Jr. of Climatology, Vol- 34, pp- 3179?3187, DOI: 10.1002/joc.3901
  7. Tinmaker M. I. R., Ali K., and Beig G., 2010, Relationship between Lightning Activity over Peninsular India and Sea Surface Temperature, journal of applied meteorology and climatology, Vol 49, pp-828 -836
  8. Holle R. L., 2008, Annual rates of lightning fatalities by country, 20th Lightning Detection Conf. 21st ?23rd June, Tucson, AZ, USA and 2nd Int. Lightning Meteorology Conf. 24th ? 25th Ap., Tucson, AZ, USA
  9. Holle R. L., 2016, The Number of Documented Global Lightning The Number of Documented Global Lightning Fatalities, 24th International lightning detection conference and 6th Int. lightning meteorological conference, 18-21st April, San Diego, California, USA, pp-1-4,? https://my.vaisala.net/Vaisala
  10. Pfortmueller C. A., Yikun Y., Haberkern M., Wuest E., Zimmermann H., &Exadaktylos A. K., 2012, Injuries, Sequelae, and Treatment of Lightning-Induced Injuries: 10 Years of Experience at a Swiss Trauma Center, Emergency Medicine International Volume, article ID 167698,pp-1-6, http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/167698
  11. Jensen J. D., Vincent A. L., 2017, Lightning Injuries, Stat Pearls internet, https://www.ncbi. nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK441920/
  12. Cecil, D. J., and C. B. Blankenship, 2012: Toward a global climatology of severe hail storms as estimated by satellite passive microwave imagers. Jour. Climate, Vol-25,pp- 687?703, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00130.1.
  13. Cecil, Daniel J., Dennis E. Buechler and Richard J. Blakeslee, 2014, Gridded lightning climatology from TRMM-LIS and OTD: Dataset description, Atmospheric Research, pp- 135-136. (2014): 404 -414. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2012.06.028
  14. Singh O., Singh J., 2015, Lightning fatalities over India: 1979?2011, Meteorological Applications, Meteorol. Appl. Vol-22, pp-770?778 (2015)https://doi.org/10.1002/1520
  15. Zhang W., Meng Q., Ma M., Zhang Y., 2011, Lightning casualties and damages in China from 1997 to 2009. Nat. Hazards Vol-57, pp- 465?476.
  16. Curran E. B., Holle R. L., Lopez RE., 2000, Lightning casualties and damages in the United States from 1959 to 1994. Jour. Climate. Vol-13, pp- 3448?3464.
  17. Pinto, JR., O.; Pinto, I. R. C. A., 2008, On the sensitivity of cloud-to-ground lightning activity to surface air temperature changes at different timescales in Sao Paulo, Brazil. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, v. 113, n. D20, OCT 31 2008. Web of Science Citations: 10. (03/08655-4)
  18. Cohen Bernard, Benjamin Franklin?s Experiments: A New Edition of Franklin?s Experiments and Observations on Electricity, Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, MA, 1941
  19. Franklin, B.: Experiments and Observations of Electricity; Made at Philadelphia in America, 5th ed., 514 pp., F. Newberry, London, 1774
  20. Cavendish, H.: Experiments on air, Philosophical Transactions, Vol-75,(372) pp, 1785.
  21. Das Gupta, N. N.; Ghosh S. K. (1946). \"A Report on the Wilson Cloud Chamber and its Applications in Physics\". Reviews of Modern Physics. Vol-18 (2), pp- 225?365. doi:10.1103/ RevModPhys.18.225. and Franklin and Electrostatics version 1.3 ?2004 Robert A. Morse Wright Center for Science Teaching, Tufts University Section VIII- page 1
  22. Miller Stanley L., 1953, A Production of Amino Acids Under Possible Primitive Earth Conditions and Stanley Miller?s Experiment and Its Effects on the Hypotheses of the Origin of Life, Miller, Science Vol-117, PP- 528
  23. Holle R. L., 2016, A Summary of Recent National-Scale Lightning Fatality Studies, Am. Meteorological Society, Journal online, https://doi.org/10.1175/WCAS-D-15-0032.1, PP-
  24. Sarajčev I., Sarajčev P., Vujevi S., 2008, Mathematical model of lightning stroke development, 16th International Conference on Software, Telecommunications and Computer Networks, Split, DOI: 10.1109/SOFTCOM.2008.4669448
  25. Logan J. A., 1983, Nitrogen oxides in the troposphere: global and regional budgets, Jour. Geophys. Res., Vol-88 (10), PP- 785?10 807.
  26. Dentener F. J. and Crutzen P. J., 1993, Reaction of N2O5 on tropospheric aerosols: impact on the global distributions of NOx, O3, and OH, J. Geophys. Res., Vol-98, pp-7149?7163.
  27. Crutzen P. J.: The influence of nitrogen oxides on the atmospheric ozone content, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 96, 320?325, 1970.
  28. ChameidesW. L., Stedman, D. H., Dickerson, R. R., Rusch, D.W., and Cicerone, R. J., 1977, NOx production in lightning, J. Atmos. Sci., Vol -34, pp- 143?149.
  29. Luke, W. T., Dickerson, R. R., Ryan, W. F., Pickering, K. E.,andNunnermacker, L. J.: Tropospheric chemistry over the lower Great Plains of the United States. 2. Trace gas profiles and distributions, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 20 647?20 670, doi:10.1029/92JD02127, 1992.
  30. Huntrieser, H., Feigl, C., Schlager, H., et al., 2002, Airborne measurements of NOx, tracer species, and small particles during the European Lightning Nitrogen Oxides Experiment, J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4113, doi:10.1029/2000JD000209, 2002.
  31. Huntrieser, H., Schlager, H., Roiger, A., Lichtenstern, M., Schumann, U., Kurz, C., Brunner, D., Schwierz, C., Richter, A., and Stohl, A.: Lightning-produced NOx over Brazil during TROCCINOX: airborne measurements in tropical and subtropical thunderstorms and the importance of mesoscale convective systems, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 2987?3013, 2007, http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/7/2987/2007/
  32. IEC 62305-1:? \"Protection? against? lightning? ?? Part? 1:? General principles\", 2006
  33. R., Martin A.U., 2014, The physics of lightning, ELSEVERE, Physics Reports, Vol- 534 (4), 2014, PP- 147-241, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physrep.2013.09.004
  34. Weirup L., 2010, Volcanic Lightning, http://volcano.oregonstate.edu/volcanic-lightning
  35. Borucki W. J.,. Bar-Nun A.,. Scarf F. Cook L, A. F. II and Hunt G. E., 1982, Lightning Activity on Jupiter, ICARUS vol-52,pp- 492-502, http://www-pw.physics.uiowa. edu/~dag/ publications /1982_LightningActivityOnJupiter_I.pdf
  36. Gibbard S., Levy E. H. Lunine J. I., 1995, Generation of lightning in Jupiter\'s water cloud, PMID: 8524392 DOI: 10.1038/378592a0
  37. Michel A., 2018, Lightning on Jupiter, Image:? of flashes-in-eclipse-shadow-photos.html one of the largest of length 500KM, in October, Anthony McHale, studied at Chisholm Institute, https://www.quora.com/Does-lightning-occur-in-other-planets-in-our-solar-system
  38. Borucki W. J., Bar-nun A., Scarf F. L., Cook II A. F., Hunt G. E., 1982, Lightning Activity on Jupiter, ICARUS? Vol-52,PP- 492-502
  39. Loren Petrich, 2018, Does lightning occurs in other planets in our solar system? https://www.quora.com /Does- lightning-occur-in-other-planets-in-our-solar-system
  40. Schumann U, Huntrieser H., 2007, The global lightning-induced nitrogen oxides source. AtmosChem Phys. 2007;Vol-7(14):pp-3823?907
  41. Mueller, J. F. and Stavrakou, T., 2005, Inversion of CO and NOx emissions using the adjoint of the IMAGES model, Atmos. Chem. Phys., Vol-5, pp-1157?1186.
  42. Gilchrist M.and Benjamin N., 2017, From Atmospheric Nitrogen to Bioactive Nitrogen Oxides, Chapter-2, S. Bryan, J. Loscalzo (eds.), Nitrite and Nitrate in Human Health and Disease, Nutrition and Health, 11DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-46189-2_2, ? Springer International Publishing AG 2017.
  43. Wang G, Zhang R, Gomez ME, Yang L, Levy Zamora M, Hu M, Lin Y, Peng J, Guo S, Meng J, Li J, Cheng C, Hu T, et al., 2016, Persistent sulfate formation from London Fog to Chinese haze, .ProcNatlAcadSci U S A. 2016 Nov 29;113(48):13630-13635. Epub 2016 Nov 14.
  44. Huang, R. J., SzidatS., Haddad I.., 2014, ?High secondary aerosol contribution to particulate pollution during haze events in China,? Nature, vol. 514, pp. 218?222, 2014
  45. Paseka, M. A. and Hurst M., 2016, A Fossilized Energy Distribution of Lightning, Sci Rep. 2016; 6: 30586. online 2016 Jul 28. doi: 10.1038/srep30586,PMCID: PMC4964350
  46. 2007c. AR-4, Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability, Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC. In M.L. Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden and C.E. Hanson, eds. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 976pp
  47. IPCC, 2014: Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Core Writing Team, R.K. Pachauri and L.A. Meyer (eds.)]. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, 151 pp.
  48. Mishra S. P., 2017, The apocalyptic Anthropocene epoch and its management in India, Int. Jour. Adv. Research, Vol. 5(3),pp. 645-663
  49. Mishra S. P., Mishra S. K., 2018, The Cataclysm of Geo-Bio-Climate in Short-Lived Holocene and in Anthropocene epochs: A Critical Review, International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) Vol. 7(9), PP-1445 ? 1462, DOI: 10.21275/ART20191537
  50. Zafren K., Durrer B., Herry J. P., and Brugger H., 2005,Lightning injuries: prevention and on-site treatment in mountains and remote areas: official guidelines of the International Commission for Mountain Emergency Medicine and the Medical Commission of the International Mountaineering and Climbing Federation (ICAR and UIAA MEDCOM), Resuscitation, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 369?372, 2005
  51. Davis C, Engeln A., Eric L., Johnson M. D., Scott E., McIntosh, Zafren K., et al. 2014,Wilderness medical society practice guidelines for the prevention and treatment of lightning injuries: 2014 update. Wilderness Environ Med,VOL-25(4 Suppl), pp-86?95.
  52. Copper M.A., Andrews C.J., Holle R.J., 2001, Lightning injuries. In: Auerbach P.S., editor. Wilderness Medicine. 4th ed. Mosby; St. Louis (MO): 2001. pp. 74?76.
  53. Nagesh I.V., Bhatia P., Mohan S., Lamba N.S., Sen S., 2015, A bolt from the blue: Lightning injuries, Med J Armed Forces India. Vol- 71(Suppl 1): S134?S137,doi: [10.1016/j.mjafi.2013.08.004], PMCID: PMC4529553
  54. Brightwell A. H., 1968, Lightning stroke in livestock, Can. vet. Jour., vol. 9 (8), PP-186-188, https://europepmc.org/backend/ptpmcrender.fcgi?accid=PMC1697261
  55. Christian, H. J., Blakeslee R. J., and Goodman S. J., et al., 2003, Global frequency and distribution of lightning as observed from space by the Optical Transient Detector. J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4005, doi:10.1029/2002JD002347.
  56. Boccippio, D. J., S. J. Goodman, and S. J. Heckman, 2000: Regional differences in tropical lightning distributions. J. Appl. Meteor., 39, 2231?2248, doi:10.1175/1520-0450(2001)040<2231:RDITLD, >2.0.CO;2.
  57. Rachel I., Albrecht S. J., Goodman S. J., Goodman D., Buechler D. et al, 2016, Where are the lightning hotspots on Earth?, BAMS, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol- 97(11):160217105003003, DOI: 10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00193.1
  58. Murugavel P., Pawar S. D., Gopalakrishan V., 2014, Climatology of lightning over Indian region and its relationship with convective available potential energy, Int. Jour. of Climatology, Vol- 34(11), pp-1860-1871, DOI: 10.1002/joc.3901
  59. KharePrakash, 2015, Lecture notes on Synoptic Meteorology, (E- Module) of Fore-casters Training Course (FTC), Pune, GOI, Ministry of Earth Sciences, India Meteo-rological Dept. Meteorological Training Institute Pune, PP- 1-30
  60. Illiyas F. T., Mohan K., Mani S. K, Pradeep A P. K, 2014, Lightning Risk in India Challenges in Disaster Compensation, Economic and political weekly, volxlIX no 23, PP- 23-27
  61. Gomes, R., M. Z. A. AbKadir, and M. A. Cooper, 2012: Lightning safety scheme for sheltering structures in low-income societies and problematic environments. Preprints, 31st Int. Conf. on Lightning Protection, Vienna, Austria, IEEE, 1?11, doi:https :// doi. org/ 10.1109/ICLP.2012.6344404.
  62. Salini K, 2017, Lightning Risk: An Under-Valued Disaster?, IRA-International Journal of Management & Social Sciences, Vol.07(02), PP- 208-212, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10. 21013/ jmss.v7. n2.p10

[Siba Prasad Mishra. (2018); LIGHTNING DURING GOLDEN SPIKE OF THE ANTHROPOCENEEPOCH: THE STUDY OF VULNERABILITY ODISHA, INDIA IN THE GLOBAL CONTEXT. Int. J. of Adv. Res. 6 (11). 150-170] (ISSN 2320-5407). www.journalijar.com

Siba Prasad Mishra


Article DOI: 10.21474/IJAR01/7982       DOI URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.21474/IJAR01/7982

Share this article