Histological, histochemical and ultrastructural studies on the effect of Deca-Durabolin and whey protein isolate on cardiac muscle in adult male albino rats
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The abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is under constant debate world-wide. A large number of young adolescents abuse AAS to improve their physical fitness and appearance. The abuses of AAS have been associated with cardiovascular disorders and have a negative impact on exercise performance, since it disturbs heart function. Whey protein is often described as a “nutritionally perfect protein” in the sense that it contains all the essential and non-essential amino acids required by the human body. Whey\'s amino acid profile is closely related to the optimal physiological needs of the human body. In addition, whey protein may be the best candidate for maximizing muscle growth especially whey protein isolate. It contains an optimal balance of amino acids for muscle growth, especially glutamine and taurine. Today, whey is a popular dietary protein supplement purported to provide antimicrobial activity, immune modulation, improved muscle strength, body composition and prevents cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis. The effects of whey protein on human health are of great interest and are currently being investigated as a way of reducing disease risk. So the present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Deca-Durabolin “nandrolone decanoate” the most widely used AAS and whey protein as a natural anabolic product on the histological, histochemical and ultrastructural pattern of cardiac muscle and also to investigate whether whey protein can ameliorate the deleterious effects induced by nandrolone injection. Material and methods:140 male albino rats were used in this study. They were divided into four groups, Group 1: Untreated control rats. Group II: Rats treated with nandrolone (intramuscular injected) for 3months .Group III: Rats treated with whey protein (orally administered daily) for 3 months. Group IV: Rats treated with whey protein and nandrolone, whey protein extract was orally administered daily for 6 weeks and then, they were intramuscularly injected by nandrolone extract for 6 weeks. The experimental rats were sacrificed after 1 and 30 days post treatment. Then the cardiac muscle specimens were removed for light and electron microscopic studies. Results: treatment of rats with nandrolone after 1 &30 days post treatment, revealed many histopathological and ultrastructure changes in the myocardium varying from hypertrophy, intramuscular haemorrhagic areas, lymphocytic infiltration, hyalinization,vacuolation to myocytolysis and loss of myofibrils. The nuclei exhibited different histopathological signs varying from pyknosis to karyolysis. Ultrastructural observations showed extensive degeneration of the muscle fibers with marked destruction of myofibrils. Increased in collagen fibers was detected and mitochondriosis with degeneration and electron dense appearance of many mitochondria. The nuclei appeared hyperchromatic with peripherally clumped chromatin. In whey group no distinctive changes were observed in the architecture of the cardiac muscle after 1 &30 days of treatment .Whey and nandrolone group, revealed marked improvement of myofibers against the deleterious changes induced by nandrolone, however, mild widened endomysium, some pyknotyic and karyolytic nuclei and partial increase in collagen fibers were still present. The quantitative histochemical measurements in the current study recorded a significant increase in carbohydrates, total protein and DNA content allover the experimental period Conclusion:Nandrolone injection in male albino rats induced degenerative changes in the cardiac muscle which may led to loss of heart function .The whey protein did not cause any damaging effects to the cardiac muscle and ameliorated the toxic effects of nandrolone to a large extent.
[Hemmat M. Abdelhafez (2014); Histological, histochemical and ultrastructural studies on the effect of Deca-Durabolin and whey protein isolate on cardiac muscle in adult male albino rats Int. J. of Adv. Res. 2 (10). 0] (ISSN 2320-5407). www.journalijar.com
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