01Aug 2019


  • Departamento de Ci?ncias Biol?gicas, Universidade Estadual do Parana, campus de Paranagu?, Rua Comendador Correia Junior, 117, CEP 83203-280, Paranagu?, PR, Brasil.
  • Programa de P?s-Gradua??o em Ci?ncia e Tecnologia Ambiental, Universidade Tecnol?gica Federal do Paran? - Campus Curitiba.
Crossref Cited-by Linking logo
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • References
  • Cite This Article as
  • Corresponding Author

Anthropogenic activities cause a great impact in marine biota. In estuarine environments, the sea squirts, sessile marine invertebrates, can be used as bioindicators and environmental quality biomonitors. The ascidian Microcosmus exasperatus was used in this study to compare two sites with different pollution stress. In the laboratory the individuals were dissected separating the inner soft body and the tunic. This body parts were weighed and processed to determine the concentration of various chemicals, including heavy metals. The water content of tissues showed significant differences between sites, with higher values in antropized site, indicating stress of pollution. Similarly, the condition factor presented differences between sites, which may be related to factors such as hydrodynamics, tidal cycle, but also indicate environmental pollution. In chemical analysis, it was observed that the ascidian retains higher concentration of certain chemicals in inner body than in tunic. Some chemical also showed different concentrations between places. The species studied is able to absorb a significant percentage of highly toxic elements, showing to be a good biomonitor for some metals.

  1. A. Rodrigues, R.M. Rocha, and T.M.C. Lotufo, Guia ilustrado para identifica??o das Asc?dias do estado de S?o Paulo. Instituto de Boci?ncias, USP, S?o Paulo. http://dx.doi.org/10.2983/0730-8000(2008). 1998.
  2. C. Lana, R. Christofoletti, J.R. Gusm?o, T.L. Barros, D. Spier, T.M. Costa, A.S. Gomes, and C.S.C. Santos, ?Benthic Estuarine Assemblages of the Southeastern Brazil Marine Ecoregion (SBME)?. In: P.C. Lana, and A. Bernardino (Eds), Brazilian Estuaries. Brazilian Marine Biodiversity. Springer, Cham. 2018.
  3. UNESCO, http://www.unesco.org/new/pt/brasilia/culture/world-heritage/list-of-world-heritage-in-brazil/atlantic-forest-south-east-reserves/#c1465030. 2019.
  4. M.B. Castella, P.R. Castella, D.C.S. Figueiredo, and S.M.P. Queiroz (Orgs.), Mar e Costa: Subs?dios para o ordenamento das ?reas estuarina e costeira do Paran?. SEMA. Curitiba. 2006.
  5. Barcelos, N.H. Gruber, M. Quintas, and L. Fernandes, ? Complexo Estuarino de Paranagu?: Estudo das Caracter?sticas Ambientais com Aux?lio de um Sistema de Informa??o Geogr?fica?. Col?quio Brasileiro de Ci?ncias Geod?sicas, 3, p. 62-83, 2003. http://geodesia.ufsc.br/Geodesiaonline/arquivo/GeoColoq_2003/artigos/T124.pdf.
  6. Pletsch, M. Beretta, T. Tavares, ?Distribui??o espacial de compostos org?nicos de estanho em sedimentos costeiros e em Phallusia nigra da Ba?a de Todos os Santos e litoral norte da Bahia ? Brasil.? Quimica Nova. 33(2), 451-457. 2010.
  7. Caralt, S. L?pez-Legentil, I. Tarjuelo, M. Uriz, and X. Turon, ?Contrasting biological traits of Clavelina lepadiformis (Ascidiacea) populations from inside and outside harbours in the western Mediterranean?. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 244: 125-137. 2002.
  8. Fu, and Q. Wang, ?Removal of Heavy Metal Ions from Wastewaters: A Review.? Journal of Environmental Management, 92, 407-418. 2011.
  9. Michibata, T. Terada, N. Anada, K. Yamakawa, and T. Numakunai, ?The accumulation and distribution of vanadium, iron, and manganese in some solitary ascidians.? BioL Bull. 171: 672-681. 1986.
  10. Carballo, and S. Naranjo, ?Environmental assessment of a large industrial marine complex based on a community of benthic filter-feeders?. Mar. Pol. Bul. 44:605-610. 2002. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0025-326X(01)00295-8.
  11. Beiras, J. Bellasa, N. Fernandeza, J.I. Lorenzoa, and A. Cobelo-Garc?a, ?Assessment of coastal marine pollution in Galicia (NW Iberian Peninsula); metal concentrations in seawater, sediments and mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) versus embryo?larval bioassays using Paracentrotus lividus and Ciona intestinalis?. Mar. Envir. Res. 56:531-553. 2003.
  12. O. Marins, R.L.M. Novaes, R.M., and A. Junqueira, ?Non indigenous ascidians in port and natural environments in a tropical Brazilian bay?. Intern. J. Zool. 27:213-221. 2010.
  13. A.J. Ali, M. Tamilselvi, A,S. Akram, M.L.K. Arshan, and V. Sivakumar, ?Comparative study on bioremediation of heavy metals by solitary ascidian, Phallusia nigra, between Thoothukudi and Vizhinjam ports of India?. Ecotox. and Env. Saf. 121: 93?99. 2015.
  14. Lambert, ?Ecology and natural history of the protochordates.? Can. J. Zool. 83: 34-50. 2005.
  15. K. Petersen, and I. Svane, ?Filtration rate in seven Scandinavian ascidians: implications of the morphology of the gill sac.? Marine Biology 140: 397-402. 2002.
  16. Colozza, M.F. Gravina, L. Amendola, M. Rosati, D.E. Akretche, D. Moscone, and F. Arduini, ? A miniaturized bismuth-based sensor to evaluate the marine organism Styela plicata bioremediation capacity toward heavy metal polluted seawater.? Sci Total Environ. 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.01.099.
  17. M. Rocha, and L.P. Kremer, ?Introduced ascidians in Paranagu? Bay, Paran?, southern Brazil.? Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 22 (4): 1170-1184. 2005.
  18. Stoecher, ?Defenses of ascidians against predators.? Ecology, 61, 1327-1334. 1980.
  19. Brenner, and B.H. Buck, ?Attachment properties of blue mussel (Mytilus edulis L.) byssus threads on culture-based artificial collector substrates?. Aquacultural Engineering 42: 128?139. 2010.
  20. Viarengo, ?Heavy metals in marine invertebrates: mechanisms of regulation and toxicity at the cellular level.? Rev. Aquatic Sci., 1,295-317. 1989.
  21. C. Lana, E. Marone, R.M. Lopes, and E.C. Machado, ?The subtropical estuarine complex of Paranagu? Bay, Brazil.?. Ecological Studies, Coastal Marine Ecosystems of Latin America. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 144, p. 131-145. 2000.
  22. Agre, A.M. Saboori, A. Asimos, And B.L. Smith, ?Purification and partial characterization of the Mr 30,000 integral membrane protein associated with the erythrocyte Rh(D) antigen?. J. Biol. Chem. 262:17497?17503. 1987.
  23. H. Depledge, and P. S. Rainbow, ?Models of regulation and accumulations of trace metals in marine invertebrates: a mini-review?. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 97C, 1-7. 1990.
  24. Nagar, and N. Shenkar, ?Temperature and salinity sensitivity of the invasive ascidian Microcosmus exasperatus Heller, 1878?. Aquatic Invasions 11(1): 33?43. 2016.
  25. K. Hoffmann, I.H. Lambert, and S.F Pedersen, ?Physiology of cell volume regulation in vertebrates?. Physiol. Ver. 89:193?277. 2009.
  26. Bellas, R. Beiras, and E. Varques, ?Subtethal effects of trace metals (Cd,Cr, Cu, Hg) on embryogenesis and larval settlement of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis?. Arch Environ. Contam. Toxical. v.46 n.1, . 61-66. 2004.
  27. S?, ?Distribui??o e fracionamento de contaminantes nos sedimentos superficiais e atividades de dragagem no Complexo Estuarino da Ba?a de Paranagu?, PR.? Master dissertation Curso de P?sgradua??o em Geologia ? UFPR, 92p. 2003.
  28. Seo, ?Avalia??o dos teores de Br, Cl, K, Mg, MN e V em mexilh?s Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) coletados no litoral do estado de S?o Paulo, Brasil.? Master disertation Curso de P?sgradua??o em Ci?ncias na ?rea de Tecnologia Nuclear ? USP, 127p. 2012.
  29. Maanan, ?Biomonitoring of heavy metals using Mytilus galloprovincialis in Safi costal waters, Morocco?. Env. Toxicol. 1: 525-531. 2007.
  30. E. Rezende, L.D. Lacerda, ?Metais pesados em mexilh?es Perna perna no litoral do estado do Rio de Janeiro.? Revista Brasileria de Biologia, 46, 239-247. 1986.
  31. Hocckett, P. Tngramb, and A. Lefurgey, ?Strontium and manganese uptake in the barnaclae shell: Electron probe microanalysis imaging to attain fine temporal resolution of biomineralization activity?. Mar. Env. Res. 43(3): 131-143. 1997.
  32. I. Powell, and K.N. White, ?Heavy metal accumulation by barnacles and its implications for their use as biological monitors?. Mar. Env. Res. 30: 91-118. 1990.
  33. R. Bellotto, P.C. de Brito, G. Manzoni, and E. Wegner, ?Biomonitoramento ativo de metais tra?o e efeito biol?gico em mexilh?es transplantados para ?rea de influ?ncia de efluente de ind?stria de beneficiamento de a?o- fase I?. Braz. J. Aquat. Sci. Technol. 9(2):33-37. 2005.
  34. J. Curtius, and J.F. Ferreira, ?Avaliando a contamina??o por elementos tra?o em atividades de maricultura. Resultados parciais de um estudo de caso realizado na Ilha de Santa Catarina ? SC? . Quimica Nova, Vol. 26, No. 1,44-52. 2003.
  35. S. Vaitsman, J.C. Afonso, and P.B. Dutra, Para que servem os elementos qu?micos. Rio de Janeiro - 20.710-290. p. 286. 2001.
  36. P. O?Connor, ?Mussel watch results?. Mar. Environ. Res., 41: 183. 1996.
  37. P. O?Connor, ?Mussel watch results?. Mar. Pollut. Bull., 37: 14. 1998.
  38. S. Nielsen, Fisiologia Animal ? Adapta??o e Meio ambiente. Ed Com. Imp. Ltda. 5? ed. 2002.
  39. E.V. Carvalho, M.P.O. Cavalente, M.P. Gomes, V.V. Faria, and C.E. Rezende, ?Distribui??o de metais pesados em mexilh?es (Perna perna, L.) da Iha de Santana, Maca?, SE, Brasil?. Ecotox. and Env. Rest. 4(1): 1-5. 2001.
  40. Michibata, N. Yamagushi, T. Uyama, and T. Ueki, ?Molecular biological aproaches to the accumulation and reduction of vanadium by ascidians.? Coord. Chem. Rev. 237: 41-51. 2003.
  41. Roozbeh, F. Ali, F. Iraj, and I. Ali, ?A Investigation of Nickel and Vanadium Ratio from Oil Pollution in Sediments and Rocky Shore Oysters (Saccostrea cucullata) in Bushehr Coasts (Persian Gulf)?. Oceanography, 4(14):5-5. 2013.
  42. FDA, Food and Drugs Administration Guidance. http://www.cfsan.fda.gov,
  43. ABIA, ?Comp?ndio da Legisla??o de Alimentos. (Associa??o Brasileira das Ind?strias de Alimenta??o - Brazilian Food Industry Association)?. Atos do Minist?rio da Sa?de, S?o Paulo. https://www.abia.org.br/vsn/, 1996.
  44. Lambert, R.C. Karney, W.Y. Rhee, and M.R. Carman, ?Wild and cultured edible tunicates: a review.? Manag. Biol. Inv. 7(1): 59?66. 2016.

[Rafael Metri, Gesica da Costa Bernardo Soares, Pablo Damian Borges Guilherme and Luis Fernando Roveda. (2019); THE ASCIDIAN MICROCOSMUS EXASPERATUS AS BIOINDICATOR FOR THE EVALUATION OF WATER QUALITY IN ESTUARIES. Int. J. of Adv. Res. 7 (Aug). 174-185] (ISSN 2320-5407). www.journalijar.com

Rafael Metri
Universidade Estadual do Paraná


Article DOI: 10.21474/IJAR01/9491       DOI URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.21474/IJAR01/9491

Share this article