20Jan 2020


Crossref Cited-by Linking logo
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • References
  • Cite This Article as
  • Corresponding Author

Background: An idea formerly dismissed by others due to the social construct of yesterdays parents expecting their children to support them their entire lives; having an only child is quickly becoming the norm within todays generation of parents in order to achieve a much more stable experience and balanced family life. Method: This qualitative paper used a phenomenological research design to understand the lived experiences and perceptions of the parents with one child, relative to the central question: What are the struggles and benefits of having an only child. The data were gathered through a twenty-five semi-structured interview, which was then analyzed by using an inductive approach in theme development. Findings: Findings have shown that the experience of parents in raising a child is a journey of unknown, which they prepare themselves in so that they could raise them properly. They adapt to their childs needs in terms of their character and values by implementing a punishment system. Conclusion: Parents play a major role in the childs growth. They mold their child to become a responsible citizen. Recommendation: To comply with the literature gap, this study advises future researchers to take more cognizance on the struggles of the parents. This includes pressure from environmental factors, underlying issues, and their strategies to cope.

  1. Anderson, C. A., & Huesmann, L. R. (2003). Human aggression: Asocial?cognitive view. In M. A. Hogg & J. Cooper (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology (pp. 296?323). London: Sage.
  2. Barnes, G. M., Hoffman, J. H., Welte, J. W., Farrell, M. P., & Dintcheff, B. A. (2006). Effects of parental monitoring and peer deviance on substance use and delinquency. Journal of Marriage and Family, 68(4), 1084-1104.
  3. Baumrind, D. (2005). Patterns of parental authority and adolescent autonomy. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 108, 61-69.
  4. Beckmeyer, J. J., & Russell, L. T. (2018). Family structure and family management practices: Associations with positive aspects of youth well-being. Journal of Family Issues, 39(7), 2131-2154. doi:http://dx.doi.org.eres.qnl.qa/10.1177/0192513X17741921.
  5. Borawski, E. A., levers-Landis, C. E., Lovegreen, L. D., & Trapl, E. S. (2003). Parental monitoring, negotiated unsupervised time, and parental trust: The role of perceived parenting practices in adolescent health risk behaviors. Journal of Adolescent Flealth, 33(2), 60-70.
  6. Bornstein, M. H., Putnick, D. L., & Suwalsky, J. T. D. (2018). Parenting cognitions → parenting practices → child adjustment? the standard model. Development and Psychopathology, 30(2), 399-416. doi:http://dx.doi.org.eres.qnl.qa/10.1017/S0954579417000931.
  1. Carr, E. R. (2015). Healing bridge: Exploring the relationship between parental propensity to apologize and child well-being (Order No. 3714460). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (1708984122). Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.eres.qnl.qa/docview/1708984122?accountid=49936.
  2. Chaudhry, A. Q., Hassan, S. M., Khaliq, M. A., & Agha, Q. (2015). Parent\'s involvement in their child academic achievement. Pakistan Vision, 16(1), 117-125. Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.eres.qnl.qa/docview/1803805140?accountid=49936.
  3. Church,Wesley T.,,II, Jaggers, J. W., Tomek, S., Bolland, A. C., Bolland, K. A., Hooper, L. M., & Bolland, J. M. (2015). Does permissive parenting relate to levels of delinquency? an examination of family management practices in low-income black American families. Journal of Juvenile Justice, 4(2), 95-110. Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.eres.qnl.qa/docview/1726793385?accountid=49936.
  4. Danzig, A. P., Dyson, M. W., Olino, T. M., Laptook, R. S., & Klein, D. N. (2015). Positive parenting interacts with child temperament and negative parenting to predict children\'s socially appropriate behavior. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 34(5), 411-435. doi:http://dx.doi.org.eres.qnl.qa/10.1521/jscp.2015.34.5.411.
  5. Devi, A. N., Baruah, J., Pradhan, N., & Borah, T. (2017). Parent-adolescent attachment as perceived by adolescents. Indian Journal of Positive Psychology, 8(2), 117-119. Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.eres.qnl.qa/docview/1961766571?accountid=49936.
  6. FAN, M. (2016). Effects of the One-child policy and the number of children in families on the mental health of children in china. Revista De Cercetare Si Interventie Sociala, 52, 105-129. Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.eres.qnl.qa/docview/1923728121?accountid=49936.
  7. Fang, S. (2018). Only-child parents and their only children: How the one child policy influences Chinese family functioning and child outcomes (Order No. 10813748). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (2056877614). Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.eres.qnl.qa/docview/2056877614?accountid=49936.
  8. Feng, X., Poston,Dudley L.,,Jr, & Wang, X. (2014). China\'s one-child policy and the changing family. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 45(1), 17. Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.eres.qnl.qa/docview/1667951712?accountid=49936.
  9. Fingerman, K. L., Kim, K., Birditt, K. S., & Zarit, S. H. (2016). The ties that bind: Midlife parents\' daily experiences with grown children. Journal of Marriage and Family, 78(2), 431-450. doi:http://dx.doi.org.eres.qnl.qa/10.1111/jomf.12273.
  10. Giusto, A., Friis, E., Sim, A. L., Chase, R. M., Zayzay, J. O., & Green, E. (2017). A qualitative study of mechanisms underlying effects of a parenting intervention in rural Liberia. European Journal of Development Research, 29(5), 964-982. Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.eres.qnl.qa/docview/2027572131?accountid=49936.
  11. Grundy, Emily, & Sanna. (2012, October 18). Social Contacts and Receipt of Help Among Older People in England: Are There Benefits of Having More Children? Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbs082.
  12. Gui, T., & Koropeckyj-cox, T. (2016). \"I am the only child of my parents:\" perspectives on future elder care for parents among Chinese only-children living overseas. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 31(3), 255-275. doi:http://dx.doi.org.eres.qnl.qa/10.1007/s10823-016-9295-z.
  13. Hong, E. (2020, Jan 01). Sundance 2019: \'one child nation\' explores the implications of china\'s one-child policy. University Wire Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.eres.qnl.qa/docview/2331711395?accountid=49936.
  14. Hong, J. S., Kim, D. H., & Piquero, A. R. (2017). Assessing the links between punitive parenting, peer deviance, social isolation and bullying perpetration and victimization in south Korean adolescents. Child Abuse & Neglect, 73, 63. Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.eres.qnl.qa/docview/1970187001?accountid=49936.
  15. Ibabe, I., & Bentler, P. M. (2016). The contribution of family relationships to child-to-parent violence. Journal of Family Violence, 31(2), 259-269. doi:http://dx.doi.org.eres.qnl.qa/10.1007/s10896-015-9764-0.
  16. Jiang, Q., Li, Y., & Sanchez-Barricarte, J. (2014). The risk of mothers losing an only child in china. Journal of Biosocial Science, 46(4), 531-545. doi:http://dx.doi.org.eres.qnl.qa/10.1017/S0021932013000540.
  17. Kang, H., Raffaelli, M., Bowers, J., Munoz, L., & Simpkins, S. (2017). Parental participation in the process of youth joining a program: Perspectives from adolescents and parents. Family Relations, 66(2), 258-272. doi:http://dx.doi.org.eres.qnl.qa/10.1111/fare.12247.
  18. Klazine van, d. H., & Sleddens, E. F. C. (2017). Parenting styles, feeding styles and food-related parenting practices in relation to toddlers eating styles: A cluster-analytic approach. PLoS One, 12(5) doi:http://dx.doi.org.eres.qnl.qa/10.1371/journal.pone.0178149.
  19. Kushner, K. E., Sopcak, N., Breitkreuz, R., Pitre, N., Williamson, D. L., Rempel, G., . . . Letourneau, N. (2017). On shifting ground: First-time parents\' ideal world of paid work and family time. Community, Work & Family, 20(2), 119-141. doi:http://dx.doi.org.eres.qnl.qa/10.1080/13668803.2015.1074546.
  20. Lee, S. J. (2017). A childs voice vs. A parents control: resolving a tension between the convention on the rights of the child and U.S. law. Columbia Law Review, 117(3), 687-727. Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.eres.qnl.qa/docview/1914455009?accountid=49936.
  21. Li, H., Yi, J., & Zhang, J. (2011). Estimating the effect of the one-child policy on the sex ratio imbalance in china: Identification based on the difference-in-differences. Demography, 48(4), 1535-1557. doi:http://dx.doi.org.eres.qnl.qa/10.1007/s13524-011-0055-y.
  22. Liu, J., Mcmahon, M., & Watson, M. (2015). Parental influence on mainland Chinese children\'s career aspirations: Child and parental perspectives. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, 15(2), 131-143. doi:http://dx.doi.org.eres.qnl.qa/10.1007/s10775-015-9291-9.
  23. Masud, H., Ahmad, M. S., Cho, K. W., & Fakhr, Z. (2019). Parenting styles and aggression among young adolescents: A systematic review of literature. Community Mental Health Journal, 55(6), 1015-1030. doi:http://dx.doi.org.eres.qnl.qa/10.1007/s10597-019-00400-0.
  24. McKinney, C., Brown, K., & Malkin, M. L. (2018). Parenting style, discipline, and parental psychopathology: Gender dyadic interactions in emerging adults. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 27(1), 290-301. doi:http://dx.doi.org.eres.qnl.qa/10.1007/s10826-017-0865-7.
  25. Miller, J. S., Wanless, S. B., & Weissberg, R. P. (2018). Parenting for competence and parenting with competence: Essential connections between parenting and social and emotional learning. School Community Journal, 28(2), 9-28. Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.eres.qnl.qa/docview/2166970505?accountid=49936.
  26. Niehues, A. N., Bundy, A., Broom, A., & Tranter, P. (2015). Parents\' perceptions of risk and the influence on children\'s everyday activities. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(3), 809-820. doi:http://dx.doi.org.eres.qnl.qa/10.1007/s10826-013-9891-2.
  27. Pavlova, M. K., Silbereisen, R. K., Ranta, M., & Salmela-aro, K. (2016). Warm and supportive parenting can discourage offspring\'s civic engagement in the transition to adulthood. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 45(11), 2197-2217. doi:http://dx.doi.org.eres.qnl.qa/10.1007/s10964-016-0511-5.
  28. Petrovic, M., Vasic, V., Petrovic, O., & Santric-Milicevic, M. (2016). Positive parenting attitudes and practices in three transitional eastern European countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia and Serbia. International Journal of Public Health, 61(5), 621-630. doi:http://dx.doi.org.eres.qnl.qa/10.1007/s00038-016-0823-y.
  29. Porzig-Drummond, R. (2015). \'Help, not punishment\': Moving on from physical punishment of children. Children Australia, 40(1), 43-57. doi:http://dx.doi.org.eres.qnl.qa/10.1017/cha.2014.47.
  30. Prioste, A., Narciso, I., Gon?alves, M.,M., & Pereira, C. (2016). Adolescent parents\' values: The role played by retrospective perceptions of the family-of-origin. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25(1), 224-231. doi:http://dx.doi.org.eres.qnl.qa/10.1007/s10826-015-0211-x.
  31. Psychology Today. (2019, November 14). How Parenting Affects a Child\'s Development. https://www.psychologytoday.com/intl/basics/parenting
  32. Rainwater, L. (1965). Family design; marital sexuality, family size, and contraception Aldine Pub. Co. Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.eres.qnl.qa/docview/37821327?accountid=49936.
  33. Rhoades, K. A., Grice, C., & Del Vecchio, T. (2017). Barriers to mothers implementation of non-harsh discipline techniques: Anger, impulsivity, and situational demands. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 26(11), 3179-3191. doi:http://dx.doi.org.eres.qnl.qa/10.1007/s10826-017-0801-x.
  34. Robidoux, H., Ellington, E., & Lauerer, J. (2019). Screen time: The impact of digital technology on children and strategies in care. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing & Mental Health Services, 57(11), 15-20. doi:http://dx.doi.org.eres.qnl.qa/10.3928/02793695-20191016-04.
  35. Schofield, T. J., Conger, R. D., & Neppl, T. K. (2014). Positive parenting, beliefs about parental efficacy, and active coping: Three sources of intergenerational resilience. Journal of Family Psychology, 28(6), 973. Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.eres.qnl.qa/docview/1667951169?accountid=49936.
  36. Sihvonen, E. (2018). Parenting support policy in Finland: Responsibility and competence as key attributes of good parenting in parenting support projects. Social Policy and Society, 17(3), 443-456. doi:http://dx.doi.org.eres.qnl.qa/10.1017/S1474746417000550.
  37. Singh, P. K. (2019, Jul 19). Why peaceful parenting is better than traditional parenting. Indian Express Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.eres.qnl.qa/docview/2259829663?accountid=49936
  38. Siriwardhana, D., & Weerasinghe, M. (2015). Disciplining the children: Mothers\' perceptions from a rural sri Lankan community. Health Science Journal, 9(3), 1-7. Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.eres.qnl.qa/docview/1695163988?accountid=49936.
  39. Stattin, H., & Kerr, M. (2000). Parental monitoring: A reinterpretation. Child Development, 77(4), 1072-1085.
  40. Sugimura, K., Crocetti, E., Hatano, K., Goda Kaniu?onytė, Hihara, S., & ?ukauskienė, R. (2018). A cross-cultural perspective on the relationships between emotional separation, parental trust, and identity in adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 47(4), 749-759. doi:http://dx.doi.org.eres.qnl.qa/10.1007/s10964-018-0819-4.
  41. Tu, Y., Chou, M., & Lee, H. (2013). Parent-child shared reading meets information technology: Revealing links between parenting and children\'s character development. Journal of Applied Sciences (Faisalabad), 13(7), 1029. Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.eres.qnl.qa/docview/1475542113?accountid=49936.
  42. Venkataraghavan, K., Panchal, P. C., Kaur, M., Trivedi, K., & Shah, S. (2016). Triple P-positive parenting program: Role of parents in enhancing positive attitude and behavior in children. International Journal of Contemporary Dentistry, 7 Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.eres.qnl.qa/docview/2096648151?accountid=49936.
  43. Vieira, J. M., Matias, M., Ferreira, T., Lopez, F. G., & Matos, P. M. (2016). Parents\' work-family experiences and children\'s problem behaviors: The mediating role of the parent-child relationship: JFP JFP. Journal of Family Psychology, 30(4), 419. Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.eres.qnl.qa/docview/1796328253?accountid=49936.
  44. Wagers, K. B., & Kiel, E. J. (2019). The influence of parenting and temperament on empathy development in toddlers: JFP JFP. Journal of Family Psychology, 33(4), 391. doi:http://dx.doi.org.eres.qnl.qa/10.1037/fam0000505.
  45. Wang, M. T., Dishion, T. J., Stormshak, E. A., & Willett, J. B. (2011). Trajectories of family management practices and early adolescent behavioral outcomes. Developmental Psychology, 47(5), 1324-1341.
  46. Woodward, K. E., Boeldt, D. L., Corley, R. P., DiLalla, L., Friedman, N. P., Hewitt, J. K., . . . Rhee, S. H. (2018). Correlates of positive parenting behaviors. Behavior Genetics, 48(4), 283-297. doi:http://dx.doi.org.eres.qnl.qa/10.1007/s10519-018-9906-2.
  47. Zhang, J. (2017). The evolution of china\'s one-child policy and its effects on family outcomes. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 31(1), 141-160. doi:http://dx.doi.org.eres.qnl.qa/10.1257/jep.31.1.141.
  48. Zhou, L. B. (2016). The relationship between parental involvement and elementary students academic achievement in china: One-only children vs. children with siblings. Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.eres.qnl.qa/docview/1915835304?accountid=49936.
  49. Zhu, J., Yu, C., Bao, Z., Jiang, Y., Zhang, W., Chen, Y., . . . Zhang, J. (2017). Deviant peer affiliation as an explanatory mechanism in the association between corporal punishment and physical aggression: A longitudinal study among Chinese adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 45(8), 1537-1551. doi:http://dx.doi.org.eres.qnl.qa/10.1007/s10802-016-0259-0.
  50. Zvonkovic, A., Swenson, A., & Cornwell, Z. (2017). Children\'s experiences of time when a parent travels for work. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 79(4), 983-1000. doi:http://dx.doi.org.eres.qnl.qa/10.1111/jomf.12386.

[Noemi F. Formaran, Jay V. Makiramdam, Joshua Rhys Mari B. Dejoras, Nathaniel Kenji R. Reyes, Lance Eric C. Ruben and Jamier John B. Bonaobra (2020); HAVING ONE AND ONLY, HAPPY OR LONELY : THE LIVED EXPERIENCES OF PARENTS WITH ONE CHILD Int. J. of Adv. Res. 8 (1). 284-303] (ISSN 2320-5407). www.journalijar.com

Dr. Noemi F. Formaran
Philippine School Doha


Article DOI: 10.21474/IJAR01/10295       DOI URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.21474/IJAR01/10295

Share this article