24Feb 2017


  • King Fahad General Hospital Jeddah.
  • East Jeddah Hospital.
  • National Guard Hospital Jeddah.
  • King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center Riyadh.
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Introduction: Saudi Arabia is ranked the 7th globally in number of children with T1DM and the 5th regarding the incidence. T1DM sequalae in children and adolescents involve both acute complications such as hypoglycemia attacks, and diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA). Long-term complications microangiopathies in the retina and kidney as well as dyslipidemia were reported. Objective: we aimed to shed more lights on T1DM among Pediatrics and Adolescent patients in Saudi Arabia in a systematic way. Methodology: A systematic search of published literature that has addressed T1DM in pediatrics and adolescents was carried out via the internet, using the medical database MEDLINE/PubMed, supported by the US National Library of Medicine. All published articles containing the words “Type 1 Diabetes”, “IDDM”, “adolescents”, “children”, “pediatric”, in combination with “Saudi Arabia” as part of their title, as a keyword or as a reference in their abstract have been collected. Only full publications and original articles were included in the review process Results: out of 54 articles, 27 were selected for this review. The number of children with T1DM in KSA is 16,100 cases. The incidence rate is growing by 3% yearly and Saudi Arabia ranked as 5th in incidence rate. The growth in incidence is driven by environmental factors rather than genetics. The clinical presentation at diagnosis includes polydipsia, polyuria and weight loss with high incidence of DKA. T1DM is commonly associated with autoimmune thyroiditis and coeliac disease. Glycemic control is an area for improvement to reduce both the acute and long term complications. T1DM is associated also with disturbance of lung function, hepatopathy and vitamin D deficiency among T1DM population. Overall, the quality of life for patients and their families were impacted negatively. Conclusion: in such a devastating disease, more epidemiological studies are needed to screen the environmental factors that trigger the autoimmune response. Awareness campaigns and continuous medical education is of utmost importance to detect the disease earlier before development of DKA. Multidisciplinary approach by highly trained diabetes management team should be enforced to improve patients’ outcomes.

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[Mohammed M. Ghandoora, Haneen A. Almutairi, Hanan A. Alsharef, Hassan M. Habis, Ehab O. Mugharbal and Abdullah M. Albogami. (2017); TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS AMONG PEDIATRICS AND ADOLESCENTS IN SAUDI ARABIA: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW. Int. J. of Adv. Res. 5 (Feb). 1352-1358] (ISSN 2320-5407). www.journalijar.com

Mohammed Marwan Ghandoora
King Fahad General Hospital, Jeddah


Article DOI: 10.21474/IJAR01/3291      
DOI URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.21474/IJAR01/3291