10Aug 2017


  • Department of Biochemistry& Academic consultant pharmacy, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502.
  • Department of Biochemistry, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502.
Crossref Cited-by Linking logo
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • References
  • Cite This Article as
  • Corresponding Author

Garlic belongs to the family Alliaceae , it has more than 500 species in 30 genera and the family is taxonomically intermediate between the Liliaceae and the Amaryllidaceae. It is widely distributed. Garlic contains more than one hundred biologically useful secondary metabolites, which include alliin, alliinase, allicin, S-allyl cysteine (SAC), diallyldisulphide (DADS), diallyltrisulphide (DATS) and methyl allyl trisulphide. The γ-glutamyl-S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteines are the primary sulfur compounds present in garlic. These active compounds are responsible for protection of tissue from damage and various disorders. The therapeutic potential of this plant product inhibits invasion of carcinoma, provides cardiovascular protection, lowering of cholesterol and blood pressure, anti-platelet activities, and thromboxane formation. In addition the biological activities of garlic include antibacterial, antithrombotic, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic and modulation of drug metabolism. The other proposed uses of garlic include hepatoprotection, antihelmenthics, antiinflammation, antifungal and wound healing. Based on our review, garlic based different ailments and concoctions can be used to alleviate a variety of health problems. Its various chemical and biological constituents contain different concentrations of organosulfur compounds to cure many diseases. Several researchers have provided a mechanism of action for many of their therapeutic effects.

  1. Aala F, Yusuf UM, Khodavandi A & Jamal F (2010) In vitro antifungal activity of allicin alone and in combination with two medications against six dermatophytic fungi. Afr J Microbiol Res 4: 380?385.
  2. Abbas Mohammadi, Ahmad Gholamhoseinian Najar, Amirhosein Khoshil (2014). Effect of Urotensin II on Paraoxonase-1 Gene Expression in HepG2 cell Academia Journal of Biotechnology 4(3): 085-090, March 2016
  3. Adetumbi M., Javor GT And LAU, B.HS. (1986). Allium satiuum (garlic) inhibits lipid synthesis by Candida albicans. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 30, 499-501
  4. Agarwal KC. (1996) Therapeutic actions of garlic constituents. Med Res Rev 16:111-24
  5. Aliasghar Vahidinia, Behnam Heshmatian, Iraj Salehi, Mohammad Zarei (2015) Garlic Powder Effect on Plasma Renin Activity, and Cardiovascular Effects of Intravenous Angiotensin I and Angiotensin II in Normotensive and Hypertensive Male Rats Avicenna J Med Biochem3(2): e28581
  6. Al-Qattan, K., M. Thomson and M. Ali. 2008. Garlic (Allium Sativum) and ginger (Zingiberofficinale) attenuate structural nephropathy progression in streptozotocininduced diabetic rats. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr.Metabol. 3:62- 71
  7. Ankri S, Mirelman D. (1999). Antimicrobial properties of allicin from garlic. Microbes Infect 1:125-129
  8. Appleton JA, Tansey MR. (1975) Inhibition of growth of zoopathogenic fungi by garlic extract.?Mycologia 67(4):882-885.
  9. Augusti KT and. Sheela CG(1996). Antiperoxide effect of S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide, an insulin secretagogue, in diabetic rats. Experientia 52: 115-120
  10. Bailey CJ., Day C. (1989). Traditional treatments for diabetes, Diabetes Care 12, 553-564.
  11. Banerjee SK. and Maulik SK.(2002). Effect of garlic on cardiovascular disorders: a review, Nutr J, 1(4) 1-14
  12. Barone FE, Tansey MR. (1977). Isolation, purification, identification, synthesis, and kinetics of activity of the anticandidal component of Allium sativum, and a hypothesis for its mode of action.?Mycologia.? 69(4):793-825
  13. Benavides GA, Squadrito GL, Mills RW, Patel HD, Isbell TS, Patel RP, DarleyUsmar VM, Doeller JE, Kraus DW(2007). Hydrogen sulfide mediates the vasoactivity of garlic. PNAS. 104: 17977-17982
  14. Block De M, Herrera-Estrella L, Van Montagu M, Schell J, Zambryski P (1984) Expression of foreign genes in regenerated plants and their progeny. EMBO J 3: 1681-1689
  15. Blumenthal,M, Goldberg A and. Brinkmann J (2000) Herbal medicine-Expanded commission Emono graphs. International Archives Medicine, 6: 35-41
  16. Bordia, A and Chutani, S. K.? . (1981).? The effect of fried versus raw garlic on fibrinolytic activity in man.?Atherosclerosis?38:417-421.
  17. Brodnitz MH., Pascale JV., Derslice LV (1971.) Flavor Components of Garlic Extract. J Agric Food Chem 19: 273?275.
  18. Capraz M, Dilek M, Akpolat T. (2006). Garlic, hypertension and patient education.Int J Cardiol. Epub ahead of print]
  19. Cardelle-Cobas A, Soria AC, Corzo-Martinez M, Villamiel M (2010) A comprehensive survey of garlic functionality. In: Pacurar M, Krejci G, ed. Garlic Consumption and Health. New York: Nova Science Publishers, 1-60
  20. Carmia B(2001). Antioxidant Health Effects of Aged Garlic Extract. J. Nutr. 131: 1010-1015
  21. Castro C, Lorenzo AG, Gonzalez A, Cruzado M(2010).Garlic components inhibit angiotensin II-induced cell-cycle progression and migration: involvement of cell-cycle inhibitor p27(Kip1) and mitogen-activated protein kinase. Mol Nutr Food Res 54: 781?787.
  22. Chuan-Hsiao Han, Ju-Chi Liu,? Kwan-Han CHEN, Yin-Shiou Lin, , Ching-Tan Chen, Chien-Teng Fan, Hu-Lun Lee, Der-Zen LIu, and Wen-Chi HOu (2011). Antihypertensive activities of processed garlic on spontaneously hypertensive rats and hypertensive humans Botanical Studies 52: 277-283.
  23. Chung LY. (2006). The antioxidant properties of garlic compounds: allyl cysteine, alliin, allicin, and allyl disulfide. J Med Food 9:205-13
  24. Das I, Hirani J, Sooranna S. (1996). Arginine is not responsible for the activation of nitric oxide synthase by garlic. J Ethnopharmacol; 53:5-9
  25. Das KK., . Das SN and Dasgupta S.(2001). The influence of ascorbic acid on nickel induced hepatic lipid peroxidation in rats. J. Basic Clin. Physiol Pharmacol 12: 187-194
  26. Davis AJ, Dale NM,? Ferreira FJ, (2003). Pearl millet as an alternative feed ingredient in broiler diets. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 12 (2): 137-144
  27. Deshpande RG, Khan MB, Bhat DA, Navalkar RG. (1993) Inhibition of Mycobacterium avium complex isolates from AIDS patients by garlic (Allium sativum). J Antimicrob Chemother 32:623-6.
  28. Eiaz LCS, Woong and Eiaz A(2003) Allium vegetables and stomach cancer risk in China. Experimental Oncology, 23: 93
  29. EidiHYPERLINK "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Eidi%20A%5BAuthor%5D&cauthor=true&cauthor_uid=17085291" A1,?Eidi M,?Esmaeili E (2006). Antidiabetic effect of garlic (Allium sativum L.) in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats PhytomedicineHYPERLINK "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17085291".13(9-10):624-9.
  30. Ekta Prakash, Ajit. K. Saxena, Dwijendra. K. Gupta (2016). Cytotoxic Activities of Ethanolic Extract of Allium Sativum against Colon Cancer Cell Lines International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology 5(3,)3041-3045
  31. Esfandiar Heidarian, Effat Jafari-Dehkordi, Ali Seidkhani-Nahal (2011). Effect of garlic on liver phosphatidate phosphohydrolase and plasma lipid levels in hyperlipidemic rats Food and Chemical Toxicology 49 : 1110-1114
  32. Forstermann U, Sessa WC. (2012). Nitric oxide synthases: regulation and function. Eur Heart J. 33: 829-837
  33. Gebhardt , Beck H.(1996). Differential inhibitory effects of garlic-derived organosulfur compounds on cholesterol biosynthesis in primary rat hepatocyte cultures. Lipids 31, 1269-1276.
  34. Gebreselema Gebreyohannes and Mebrahtu Gebreyohannes(2013). Medicinal values of garlic: A review International Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences 5(9) 401-408.
  35. Grover JK., Yadav S., Vats V., (2002). Medicinal plants of India with anti-diabetic potential, J. Ethnopharmacol., 81: 81-100
  36. Hailin Ye, Guanxiong Ye, Jinyan Jiang, Xiaoya Xu, Chengjun Wu (2016) Anti-proliferative effect of allicin on human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Biomedical Research 27 (1) 195-198
  37. Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC (1992). Free radicals, antioxidants and human diseases: where are we now? J. Lab. Clin. Med. 119:598-620
  38. Hounsome , Hounsome B,? Tomos D., and Edwards-Jones G.(2009). Changes in antioxidant compounds in white cabbage during winter storage. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 52:173-179
  39. Hunter R, Caira M, Stellenboom N(2005). Thiolsulfinate allicin from garlic: inspiration for a new antimicrobial agent. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1056:234-41.
  40. Iranloye BO (2002) Effect Of Chronic Garlic Feeding On Some Haematological Parameters African Journal of Biomedical Research 81- 82
  41. Jaber MA, Al-Mossawi A (2007). Susceptibility of some multiple resistant bacteria to garlic extracts. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 6(6):771-776
  42. Jackson R, McNeil B, Taylor C, Holl G, Ruff D, Gwebu ET(2002). Effect of aged garlic extract n casepase-3 activity in vitro. Nutritional Neuroscience 5: 287-2
  43. Jan Borlinghaus, Frank Albrecht, Martin C. H. Gruhlke, Ifeanyi D. Nwachukwu and Alan J. Slusarenko Allicin: (2014) Chemistry and Biological Properties Molecules 19, 12591-12618
  44. Jang, G.H., Ha, J.H., Huh, T.L., and Lee, Y.M.(2008) Effect of proton beam on blood vessel formation in early developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos Archives of Pharmacal Research. 31(6): 779-785 90.
  45. Joshua Adamu Tende1, Joseph Olusegun Ayo, Aliyu Mohammed, Abdulkadir Umar Zezi(2014)
  46. Effect of garlic (Allium sativum) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) extracts on haemato-biochemical parameters and liver enzyme activities in Wistar rats International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences 3(5): 380-386
  47. Josling PA (2005). The heart of garlic Nature's aid to healing the human body, HEC Publishing, Chicago Illinois. pp 20.
  48. Kamal Jamal Issa, JM, Abo Omar (2012). Effect of garlic powder on performance and lipid profile of broilersJournal of Animal Sciences 2, (2) 62-68
  49. Kang MJ, Lee SJ, Shin JH, Kang SK, Kim JG, Sung NJ(2008). Effect of garlic with different processing on lipid metabolism in 1% cholesterol fed rats.?Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition.? 37:162?169.
  50. Kyo E, Suzuki A, Kakimoto M, Ushijima M, Kasuga S, Itakura Y.(1998)Immunomodulation and Antitumor Activities of Aged Garlic Extract Phytomed. 5: 259-67.
  51. Lawson LD, Gardner CD. (2005) Composition, stability, and bioavailability of garlic products used in a clinical trial. J Agric Food Chem 53: 6254-6261
  52. Ledezma E, Marcano K, Jorquera A, De Sousa L, Padilla M, Pulgar M, Apitz-Castro R(2000).Efficacy of ajoene in the treatment of tinea pedis: a double-blind and comparative study with terbinafine.?J Am Acad Dermatol.? 43:829?832
  53. Lemar KM., Turner MP. and Lloyd D. (2002) Garlic (Allium sativum) as an anti-Candida agent: a comparison of the efficacy of fresh garlic and freeze-dried extracts. J Appl Microbiol 93: 398?405
  54. Leuschner R GK , Ielsch V (2003). Antimicrobial eff ects of garlic, clove and red hot chili on Listeria monocytogenes in broth model systems and soft cheese. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 54: 127-133.
  55. Lewis W, Elvin-Lewis M. (2003)Medical Botany: Plants Affecting Human Health 2nd ed. New York: Wiley
  56. Lilia Douaouya, Noureddine Bouzerna (2016). Effect Of Garlic (ALLIUM SATIVUM L) on biochemical parameters and histopathology of pancreas of alloxan-induced diabetic rats International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 8(6) 202-206,
  57. Li M,?Ciu JR,?Ye Y,?Min JM,?Zhang LH,?Wang K,?Gares M,?Cros J,?Wright M,?Leung-Tack J(2002). Antitumor activity of Z-ajoene, a natural compound purified from garlic: antimitotic and microtubule-interaction properties 23(4):573-9
  58. Mahesar H, Bhutto MA, Khand AA, Narejo NT (2010). Garlic Used As An Alternative Medicine To Control Diabetic Mellitus In Alloxan-Induced Male Rabbits Pak J Physiol:6(1)39-41
  59. Mamdouh MA. and Abdel-Raheim MA (2003). Oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: Effects of garlic oil and melatonin Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, 135: 539-547.
  60. Mathew PT., Augusti KT (1973). Studies on the effect of Allicin (Diallyl Disulphide-Oxide) on Alloxan Diabetes: Part I-Hypoglycaemic action & enhancement of serum insulin effect & Glycogen synthesis, Indian J. Biochem. Biophys. 10, 209-212
  61. Metwally MAA (2009). Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum) on Some Antioxidant Activities in Tilapia Nilotica (Oreochromis niloticus) World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences 1 (1): 56-64.
  62. Mohamed Osman, Farhan Hassan Furreh, Alia Abdelmonem Mohamed Eltayeb, Mayadah Hamza Mohamed Ahmed, Asma Noureldaim Mahmoud Mohamed, Shayoub ME and Hisham (2016) TILE World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 5 (5) 61-69
  63. Nabarun Roy, Sangeetha Davis, Arunaksharan Narayanankutty, Nazeem PA, TD Babu, PS Abida , Valsala PA, Achuthan C Raghavamenon (2016) Garlic Phytocompounds Possess Anticancer Activity by Specifically Targeting Breast Cancer Biomarkers - an in Silico Study Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention? 17: 2883-2888.
  64. Nadkarni AK, (1976).Indian Materia Medica. With ayurvedic, unanitibbi, siddha, allopathic, homeopathic, Naturopathic and home remedies, appendices and Indexes, Popular Prakashan Bombay 1, 2 and 3rd edn..
  65. Nrashan TS, Kumar D, Kewal LS, Raisuddin A, Sahu P. (2010) Adverse health effects due to arsenic exposure, modification by dietary supplemnation of jaggey in mice. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 242(3): 247-255
  66. Ohaeri (2001). Effect of garlic oil on the levels of various enzymes in the serum and tissue of streptozotocin diabetic rats BiosciHYPERLINK "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11508690" 21(1):19-24.
  67. Ortega R, Palencia A, L?pez-Sobaler A (2007). Improvement of cholesterol levels and reduction of cardiovascular risk via the consumption of phytosterols. Br. J. Nutr. 96, 89-93
  68. Ozturk Y, Aydin S, Kosar M, Baser KH. (1994)Endothelium-dependent and independent effects of garlic on rat aorta. J Ethnopharmacol 44:109-16.
  69. Pai ST & Platt MW(1995).Antifungal effects of Allium sativum(garlic) extract aganst the Aspergillus species involved in otomycosis Letters in Applied Microbiology? 20,14-18
  70. Pankaj Kashyap , Shashi Kant Bhaskar, Arpan Kumar Tripathi, Rakesh Sahu, Dharmendra Singh Rajput,. Pradhan DK(2016). A Brief update on use of Garlic as folklore medicine: A Review European Journal Of Pharmaceutical And Medical Research,3(7) 188-193
  71. Picchi V., Migliori C., Lo Scalo R., Campanelli G., Ferrari V., and. Di Cesare LF(2012). Phytochemical content in organic and conventionally grown cauliflower. Food Chem. 130:501-509
  72. Powolny AA, Singh SV, Melov S, Hubbard A, Fisher AL(2011). The garlic constituent diallyl trisulfide increases the lifespan of C. elegans via skn-1 activation. Exp Gerontol 46:441-52.
  73. Pyun MS. and Shin S. (2006) Antifungal effects of the volatile oils from Allium plants against Trichophyton species and synergism of the oils with ketoconazole. Phytomedicine 13: 394?400.
  74. Queiroz AC, Gagliardi JF, Forjaz C,? Rezk, C.? (2009). Clinic and ambulatory blood pressure responses after resistance exercise. J Strength Cond Res, Champaign, 1183: 23(2) 571-578,.
  75. Rahman, MS (2007). Allicin and other functional active components in garlic: Health benefits and bioavailability. Int. J. Food Prop. 10:245-268.
  76. Rasha R. Rashed, Mona A. El-Ghazaly, Sanaa A. Kenawy (2014). Protective effect of garlic oil alone or combined with low-dose gamma irradiation on paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats European Journal of Biology and Medical Science Research 2(3) 1-27
  77. Ravi Kant Upadhyay (2016) garlic: A potential source of pharmaceuticals and pesticides : A review International Journal of green Pharmacy (10) 1-28
  78. Reuter HD, Koch HP, Lawson LD. Garlic: (1966)The science and therapeutic application of Allium sativum L. and Related Species. In: Koch, HP, LD Lawson, editors.?Therapeutic effects and applications of garlic and its preparations.?Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins;. pp. 135?213.
  79. Sankaran Mirunalini, Vadivel Arulmozhi and Thangam Arulmozhi (2010). Curative Effect of Garlic on Alcoholic Liver Diseased Patients Jordan Journal of Biological Sciences 3(4) 147 - 152
  80. Shah NC. (2014)Allium sativum (Garlic): The Folk and Modern uses- Part II. The scitech journal 1(8): 31-36.
  81. Shakya VK. and. Saxena RC and Anita Shakya. (2010). Effect of ethanolic extract of Allium sativum bulbs on Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research 2(6): 171-175
  82. Shoji S, Furuishi K, Yanase R, Miyazaka T, Kino M. (1993). Allyl compounds selectively killed human immunodeficiency virus (Type 1) infected cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 194:610-21.
  83. Sogani RK, Katoch K (1981). Correlation of Serum cholesterol levels and incidence of myocardial infarction with dietary onion and garlic eating habits. J. Assoc. Physicians India 29: 443-446
  84. Sundaram SG, Milner JA. (1996). Diallyldisulfide suppresses the growth of human colon tumor cell xenografts in athymic Nude Mice. J Nutr. 126:1355-61.
  85. Tariq HA, Kandil O, Elkadi A, Carter J (1988)Garlic revisited: therapeutic for the major diseases of our times J Natl Med Assoc 80:439-445
  86. Tatarintsev AV, Vrzhets PV, Ershov DE, Shchegolev AA, Turgiev AS, Karamov EV (1992)The ajoene blockade of integrin-dependent processes in an HIV-infected cell system.Vestn Ross Akad Med Nauk 6-10.
  87. Tepe B,. Sokmen M, Akpulat HA., and. Sokmen A. (2005). In vitro antioxidant activities of the methanol extracts of five Allium species from Turkey. Food Chem. 92:89-92.
  88. Tsao, S. M. and Yin, M. C. (2001). In vitro activity of garlic oil and four diallyl sulfides against antibiotic-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae, J. Antimicrob Chemother 47(5): 665-670
  89. Weiss RF. (1988)Herbal medicine. Gothenburg, Sweden: AB Arcanum,
  90. Yoshida M, Fukushima H, Yamamoto K. Ogawa K, Toda T, Sagawa H(1987) Correlation between clinical symptoms and microorganisms isolated from root canals of teeth with periapical pathosis journal of Endodontics 13, 24-8.
  91. Young-Min Lee,?Oh-HYPERLINK "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Gweon%20OC%5BAuthor%5D&cauthor=true&cauthor_uid=20016716"CheonHYPERLINK "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Gweon%20OC%5BAuthor%5D&cauthor=true&cauthor_uid=20016716" HYPERLINK "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Gweon%20OC%5BAuthor%5D&cauthor=true&cauthor_uid=20016716"Gweon,?Yeong-Ju Seo?Jieun m,?Min-Jung Kang,?Myo-Jeong Kim,?and?Jung-In Kim(2009). Antioxidant effect of garlic and aged black garlic in animal model of type 2 diabetes mellitus NutrHYPERLINK "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2788179/" Res HYPERLINK "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2788179/"Pract. Summer 3(2): 156.

[B. J. Divya, B. Suman, L. Lakshman kumar, M.Venkataswamy, B. Eswari and K. Thyagaraju. (2017); THE ROLE OF ALLIUM SATIVUM (GARLIC) IN VARIOUS DISEASES AND ITS HEALTH BENEFITS: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW. Int. J. of Adv. Res. 5 (Aug). 592-602] (ISSN 2320-5407). www.journalijar.com

Prof. K. Thyagaraju
Sri Venkateswara University


Article DOI: 10.21474/IJAR01/5094      
DOI URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.21474/IJAR01/5094